Vomiting

Also known as Can't keep food down, Dry heaves, Retching, Throwing up, Puking, and Emesis

Vomiting (known medically as emesis and informally as throwing up and numerous other terms) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose. Vomiting can be caused by a wide variety of conditions; it may present as a specific response to ailments like gastritis or poisoning, or as a non-specific sequela of disorders ranging from brain tumors and elevated intracranial pressure to overexposure to ionizing radiation. The feeling that one is about to vomit is called nausea, which often precedes, but does not always lead to, vomiting. Antiemetics are sometimes necessary to suppress nausea and vomiting. In severe cases, where dehydration develops, intravenous fluid may be required.

Source: Wikipedia

What causes it?

The most common causes of vomiting are noninfectious gastroenteritis, common cold, and hypovolemia. Other possible causes, such as pneumonia, are more rare.

What symptoms are related?

Within all the people who go to their doctor with vomiting, 81% report having nausea, 71% report having diarrhea, and 65% report having sharp abdominal pain.


What might my doctor prescribe?

Common Tests and Procedures

Patients with vomiting often receive hematologic tests, complete blood count, intravenous fluid replacement, urinalysis, radiographic imaging procedure, kidney function tests, glucose measurement and electrolytes panel .

Common Medications

The most commonly prescribed drugs for patients with vomiting include ondansetron (zofran), promethazine, loperamide (imodium), atropine / diphenoxylate, trimethobenzamide (tigan), amylases, sodium citrate, lactobacillus acidophilus and bulgaricus, kaolin / pectin, diphenoxylate (lomotil), atropine / difenoxin, glycerin topical and protamines (protamine) .

Who is at risk?

Groups of people at highest risk for vomiting include age 1-4 years age < 1 years.

Age

< 1 years
2.4x
1-4 years
2.8x
5-14 years
1.4x
15-29 years
1.2x
30-44 years
0.8x
45-59 years
0.6x
60-74 years
0.5x
75+ years
0.6x

Sex

Male
0.9x
Female
1.0x

Race/Ethnicity

Black
1.1x
Hispanic
1.3x
White
0.9x
Other
1.1x
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