Seizures

Also known as Shaking fits

An epileptic seizure (colloquially a fit) is a transient symptom of "abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain". The outward effect can be as dramatic as a wild thrashing movement (tonic-clonic seizure) or as mild as a brief loss of awareness (absence seizure). It can manifest as an alteration in mental state, tonic or clonic movements, convulsions, and various other psychic symptoms (such as déjà vu or jamais vu). Sometimes it is not accompanied by convulsions but a full body "slump", where the person simply will lose body control and slump to the ground. The medical syndrome of recurrent, unprovoked seizures is termed epilepsy, but seizures can occur in people who do not have epilepsy. For more information, see non-epileptic seizure.

Source: Wikipedia

What causes it?

The most common causes of seizures are epilepsy, alcohol abuse, and migraine. Other possible causes, such as alcohol withdrawal, are more rare.

What symptoms are related?

Within all the people who go to their doctor with seizures, 32% report having headache, 16% report having abnormal involuntary movements, and 7% report having disturbance of memory.


What might my doctor prescribe?

Common Tests and Procedures

Patients with seizures often receive hematologic tests, complete blood count, glucose measurement, intravenous fluid replacement, kidney function tests, electrolytes panel, x-ray computed tomography and electrocardiogram .

Common Medications

The most commonly prescribed drugs for patients with seizures include phenytoin (dilantin), levetiracetam (keppra), carbamazepine, lamotrigine (lamictal), divalproex sodium (depakote), topiramate (topamax), oxcarbazepine (trileptal), phenobarbital, fosphenytoin, zonisamide, valproic acid, ethosuximide and lacosamide (vimpat) .

Who is at risk?

Groups of people at highest risk for seizures include age 1-4 years.

Age

< 1 years
0.7x
1-4 years
1.5x
5-14 years
1.5x
15-29 years
1.2x
30-44 years
1.1x
45-59 years
1.0x
60-74 years
0.6x
75+ years
0.4x

Sex

Male
1.2x
Female
0.8x

Race/Ethnicity

Black
1.2x
Hispanic
1.0x
White
0.9x
Other
0.9x
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