Nosebleed

Also known as Bloody nose, Epistaxis, Nasal Bleeding, and Bleeding From Nose

Epistaxis (from Greek: ἐπιστάζω (epistazo) to bleed from the nose: ἐπί (epi) - "above", "over" + στάζω (stazo) - "to drip ") or a nosebleed is the relatively common occurrence of hemorrhage from the nose, usually noticed when the blood drains out through the nostrils. There are two types: anterior (the most common), and posterior (less common, more likely to require medical attention). Sometimes in more severe cases, the blood can come up the nasolacrimal duct and out from the eye. Fresh blood and clotted blood can also flow down into the stomach and cause nausea and vomiting. It is rarely fatal, accounting for only 4 of the 2.4 million deaths in the U.S. in 1999.

Source: Wikipedia

What causes it?

The most common causes of nosebleed are chronic sinusitis, seasonal allergies (hay fever), and bruise. Other possible causes, such as acute sinusitis, are more rare.


What might my doctor prescribe?

Common Tests and Procedures

Patients with nosebleed often receive complete blood count, prothrombin time assay, cat scan of head, diagnostic procedures on nose; mouth and pharynx, influenzavirus antibody assay, other non-or therapeutic procedures on nose; mouth and pharynx, other respiratory therapy and cerebral arteriogram .

Common Medications

The most commonly prescribed drugs for patients with nosebleed include oxymetazoline nasal, phenylephrine (duramax), silver nitrate topical each, petrolatum topical, cocaine topical, tetracaine topical product, piperonyl butoxide-pyrethrins topical, lincomycin, bioflavonoids (p-1000), isometheptene mucate, amoxapine, tranexamic acid and lidocaine-tetracaine topical .

Who is at risk?

Groups of people at highest risk for nosebleed include age 75+ years age 5-14 years.

Age

< 1 years
0.4x
1-4 years
1.5x
5-14 years
1.9x
15-29 years
0.6x
30-44 years
0.6x
45-59 years
0.7x
60-74 years
1.2x
75+ years
1.9x

Sex

Male
1.3x
Female
0.8x

Race/Ethnicity

Black
1.0x
Hispanic
1.0x
White
1.0x
Other
1.2x
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