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Fears and phobias

Also known as General fearfulness and Agoraphobia

Agoraphobia (from Greek αγορά, "gathering place"; and φόβος/φοβία, -phobia) is an anxiety disorder characterized by anxiety in situations where the sufferer perceives certain environments as dangerous or uncomfortable, often due to the environment's vast openness or crowdedness. These situations include, but are not limited to, wide-open spaces, as well as uncontrollable social situations such as the possibility of being met in shopping malls, airports, and on bridges. Agoraphobia is defined within the DSM-IV TR as a subset of panic disorder, involving the fear of incurring a panic attack in those environments. In the DSM-5, however, Agoraphobia is classified as being separate to panic disorder. The sufferer may go to great lengths to avoid those situations, in severe cases becoming unable to leave their home or safe haven.

Source: Wikipedia

What causes it?

The most common causes of fears and phobias are schizophrenia, depression, and anxiety. Other possible causes, such as personality disorder, are more rare.

What symptoms are related?

Within all the people who go to their doctor with fears and phobias, 74% report having anxiety and nervousness, 62% report having depression, and 62% report having depressive or psychotic symptoms.


What might my doctor prescribe?

Common Tests and Procedures

Patients with fears and phobias often receive psychotherapy, mental health counseling, glucose measurement, kidney function tests, electrolytes panel, toxicology screen, blood alcohol and liver function tests .

Common Medications

The most commonly prescribed drugs for patients with fears and phobias include risperidone, quetiapine (seroquel), haloperidol, clonazepam, divalproex sodium (depakote), benztropine, aripiprazole (abilify), olanzapine (zyprexa), ziprasidone (geodon), fluphenazine (prolixin), clozapine, aluminum hydroxide / magnesium hydroxide / simethicone and molindone (moban) .

Risperidone
$107
(28 days)
Quetiapine (Seroquel)
$290
(28 days)
Haloperidol
$28
(28 days)
Clonazepam
$9
(28 days)
Divalproex Sodium (Depakote)

Benztropine
$8
(28 days)
Aripiprazole (Abilify)
$497
(28 days)
Olanzapine (Zyprexa)
$536
(28 days)
Ziprasidone (Geodon)
$411
(28 days)
Fluphenazine (Prolixin)
$31
(28 days)
Clozapine
$137
(21 days)
Molindone (Moban)
$213
(28 days)

Who is at risk?

Groups of people at highest risk for fears and phobias include race/ethnicity = other. On the other hand, age < 1 years almost never get fears and phobias.

Age

< 1 years
0.0x
1-4 years
0.2x
5-14 years
0.7x
15-29 years
1.0x
30-44 years
1.5x
45-59 years
1.4x
60-74 years
0.8x
75+ years
0.5x

Sex

Male
1.0x
Female
1.0x

Race/Ethnicity

Black
1.1x
Hispanic
0.7x
White
1.0x
Other
1.6x
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