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Apnea

Also known as Snoring sounds during sleep and Stops Breathing

Apnea, apnoea, or apnœa (Greek: ἄπνοια, from ἀ-, privative, πνέειν, to breathe), is a term for suspension of external breathing. During apnea there is no movement of the muscles of respiration and the volume of the lungs initially remains unchanged. Depending on the patency of the airways there may or may not be a flow of gas between the lungs and the environment; gas exchange within the lungs and cellular respiration is not affected.

Source: Wikipedia

What causes it?

The most common causes of apnea are obstructive sleep apnea (osa), obesity, and tonsillar hypertrophy. Other possible causes, such as heart failure, are more rare.


What might my doctor prescribe?

Common Tests and Procedures

Patients with apnea often receive other diagnostic procedures (interview; evaluation; consultation), other therapeutic procedures on eyelids; conjunctiva; cornea, ultrasonography, echocardiography, electroencephalogram (eeg), ophthalmologic and otologic diagnosis and treatment, other therapeutic procedures and tracheoscopy and laryngoscopy with biopsy .

Common Medications

The most commonly prescribed drugs for patients with apnea include pramipexole (mirapex), modafinil (provigil), zaleplon (sonata), caffeine, dexlansoprazole (dexilant), formoterol, intramuscular immunoglobulin (baygam), fenofibric acid (trilipix), prazosin, drospirenone-estradiol, aminosalicylic acid, tryptophan and calcium carbonate / famotidine / magnesium hydroxide .

Who is at risk?

Groups of people at highest risk for apnea include age 45-59 years.

Age

< 1 years
0.9x
1-4 years
0.4x
5-14 years
0.6x
15-29 years
0.3x
30-44 years
1.2x
45-59 years
1.7x
60-74 years
1.4x
75+ years
0.7x

Sex

Male
1.4x
Female
0.7x

Race/Ethnicity

Black
0.8x
Hispanic
0.7x
White
1.2x
Other
0.8x
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