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Myoclonus

Also known as Myoclonic Disorder

Myoclonus /maɪˈɒklənəs/ is a brief, involuntary twitching of a muscle or a group of muscles. It describes a medical sign and, generally, is not a diagnosis of a disease. Brief twitches are perfectly normal. The myoclonic twitches are usually caused by sudden muscle contractions; they also can result from brief lapses of contraction. Contractions are called positive myoclonus; relaxations are called negative myoclonus. The most common time for people to encounter them is while falling asleep (hypnic jerk), but myoclonic jerks are also a sign of a number of neurological disorders. Hiccups are also a kind of myoclonic jerk specifically affecting the diaphragm. When a spasm is caused by another person it is known as a "provoked spasm". Shuddering attacks with babies also fall in this category.

Source: Wikipedia

What are the symptoms?

Within all the people who go to their doctor with myoclonus, 85% report having abnormal involuntary movements, 68% report having seizures, and 19% report having arm cramps or spasms. The symptoms that are highly suggestive of myoclonus are abnormal involuntary movements, seizures, eye moves abnormally, drainage in throat, arm cramps or spasms, and muscle swelling, although you may still have myoclonus without those symptoms.


What might my doctor prescribe?

Common Tests and Procedures

Patients with myoclonus often receive x-ray computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, kidney function tests, complete physical skin exam performed (ml), electroencephalogram (eeg), other diagnostic procedures (interview; evaluation; consultation), cat scan of head and toxicology screen .

Common Medications

The most commonly prescribed drugs for patients with myoclonus include clonazepam, gabapentin, corticotropin (acthar), buspirone (buspar), levetiracetam (keppra), lamotrigine (lamictal), hydrocodone, ethosuximide, immunoglobulins, intravenous (gammagard), oxazepam, clozapine, triamterene and robitussin dm .

Clonazepam
$9
(28 days)
Gabapentin
$25
(28 days)
Corticotropin (Acthar)
$36814
(14 days)
Buspirone (Buspar)
$16
(28 days)
Levetiracetam (Keppra)
$111
(28 days)
Lamotrigine (Lamictal)
$63
(28 days)
Hydrocodone

Ethosuximide
$94
(28 days)
Immunoglobulins, Intravenous (Gammagard)
$5971
(14 days)
Oxazepam
$29
(28 days)
Clozapine
$137
(21 days)
Triamterene
$50
(28 days)
Robitussin Dm
$7
(7 days)

Who is at risk?

Groups of people at highest risk for myoclonus include age 60-74 years. On the other hand, age < 1 years almost never get myoclonus.

Age

< 1 years
0.0x
1-4 years
1.1x
5-14 years
1.0x
15-29 years
0.5x
30-44 years
1.4x
45-59 years
1.0x
60-74 years
1.6x
75+ years
0.7x

Sex

Male
1.2x
Female
0.9x

Race/Ethnicity

Black
0.6x
Hispanic
0.3x
White
1.3x
Other
1.3x
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