Listing conditions

Displaying 401 - 450 of 801 in total

Insulin overdose
Excess intake of the medication insulin, leading to many different complications, including coma and death. Taking too much insulin leads to extremely low blood sugar, which is needed for organs such as the brain to function.
Interstitial lung disease
A group of disorders characterized by progressive scarring of the lungs, which can eventually make it difficult to breath or provide oxygen to the rest of the body. It can be caused by repeated exposure to certain substances (e.g. asbestos), auto-immune conditions, or the cause may be unknown.
Intertrigo (skin condition)
Inflammation or rash of the skin at the folds of the body, typically due to infection. This occurs due to chronic chafing in these areas, such as the inner thighs, armpits, and under the breasts. Bacteria and other organisms then enter the broken skin, leading to infection.
Intestinal cancer
A malignant transformation of the cells of the intestines. Cancers of the colon and rectum (large intestine) are among the most common forms of cancer, while cancers of the small intestine are relatively rare.
Intestinal disease
Any disease of the bowels, including inflammatory bowel disease, gastroenteritis, irritable bowel syndrome, bowel obstruction, cancer, and diverticulitis.
Intestinal malabsorption
Any of a number of disorders in which the intestines are not able to absorb certain nutrients, thus decreasing blood levels of these nutrients, leading to a wide variety of health problems. Common causes include antibiotics, diseases such as celiac disease or cystic fibrosis, birth defects or intestinal surgeries, radiation therapy, and certain infections such as tropical sprue.
Intestinal obstruction
A partial or complete blockage of the bowels, preventing bowel contents from passing through. It may be due to recent surgery, scarring, hernias, tumors, or many other issues.
Intracerebral hemorrhage
Bleeding inside of the brain. This is a type of stroke and can lead to brain damage. The most common cause is high blood pressure.
Intracranial abscess
A pocket of pus inside of the skull, often within the brain. Bacteria typically reaches the brain from local spread (e.g. from the ears, teeth, or sinuses). Bacteria can also be spread through the blood from heart infections or skull fractures. These infections are particularly dangerous because they can increase pressure in the skull, leading to severe brain damage.
Intracranial hemorrhage
Bleeding inside of the skull. This is caused by a ruptured blood vessel, either due to physical injury, high blood pressure, or weakness in the vessels (such as an aneurism). This is a medical emergency requiring immediate hospital evaluation.
Intussusception
A problem in which a portion of the bowel slides into the next part, similar to the parts of a telescope. This can lead to swelling and blockage of the bowels and eventually even bowel death. It is common in infants; the exact cause is not known.
Iridocyclitis
This is the inflammation of the frontal compartments of the eyeball (iris and anterior chamber). If untreated it can lead to blindness. It can be the result of trauma or infection of the eyeball, as well as a symptom of a general health problem such as many auto-immune disorders.
Iron deficiency anemia
A condition in which the body cannot produce enough red blood cells because one of the main building blocks (iron) is not available. Possible causes include low iron intake in the diet or loss through bleeding.
Irritable bowel syndrome
Condition of the bowels that often presents with abdominal pain, diarrhea, and constipation. The cause is currently unknown, and it is a diagnosis of exclusion, meaning that other illness must be ruled out by tests before the diagnosis can be made.
Ischemia of the bowel
Injury to the bowels due to lack of oxygen, typically a result of inadequate blood supply. This can be a medical emergency, and may lead to tissue death and require surgery. Common causes include a blood clot blocking blood flow and extremely low blood pressure.
Ischemic heart disease
The result of atherosclerosis (gradual plaque build up) of the blood vessels that feed the heart. The blood supply no longer meets the demand of the heart muscle, leading to dysfunction or tissue death. The spectrum ranges from angina (recurrent chest pain) to myocardial infarction (a heart attack).
Itching of unknown cause
A feeling of a desire to itch the skin that has persisted for a significant amount of time and for which a cause has not been determined despite adequate workup by a physician.
Jaw disorder
Typically referring to problems causing pain, clicking, locking, or swelling in the temporomandibular joint (i.e. the jaw joint just under the ears). The exact cause is often difficult to determine, including arthritis, traumatic injury, and chronic teeth grinding.
Joint effusion
Fluid in the tissue around the joint. There are three causes of joint effusion: infection of the joint, inflammation (e.g. gout), or trauma.
Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
A form of arthritis, or inflammation of the joints, that occurs in children under the age of 16. The exact cause is unknown, but it is thought to be due to the body's own immune system attacking the joints. Symptoms may range from a few months to lifelong, and may lead to serious consequences, including stunted growth and eye inflammation.
Kaposi sarcoma
A cancer of the skin and mucous membranes caused by the virus herpesvirus 8. It is most common in patients with lowered immune symptoms, particular HIV/AIDS.
Kidney cancer
A malignant transformation of the tissues of the kidney. There are a variety of cell types in the kidney from which cancers can arise, and each type has a different prognosis and treatment.
Kidney disease due to longstanding hypertension
A gradual loss over years of the kidneys' ability to filter blood and produce urine. It is typically caused by persistently high blood pressures. High blood pressures damages kidneys by damaging the blood vessels that feed them.
Kidney failure
A significant reduction in the kidney's ability to make urine. It can generally be thought of in 3 categories: not enough blood reaches the kidney, the kidney is dysfunctional, or the urine can't drain from the kidney (termed: pre-renal, renal, post-renal).
Kidney stone
A precipitate of crystals from the urine. The stone can be small and pass unnoticed or large and get stuck in the ureter (the tube connecting the kidney to the bladder), causing significant pain.
Knee ligament or meniscus tear
Is usually the result of a significant blow to the knee. Patients often report a "popping" sensation or a clicking sound with movement. The knee often swells and may "lock". If the shin-bone was pushed backward, the popliteal artery may be damaged.
Labyrinthitis
An inflammation of part of the inner ear, potentially leading to balance problems, dizziness, and hearing problems. The exact cause is unclear, though it is often thought to be due to viral infection.
Lactose intolerance
An inability or insufficient ability to digest the sugar lactose, a common component of dairy products such as milk, cheese, yogurt, and cream. The majority of people have some genetic degree of lactose intolerance, and avoidance of dairy products is the main treatment.
Laryngitis
Inflammation of the voice box, or larynx. This can be short-term or long-lasting, and can be caused by a viral infection (e.g. cold or flu), acid reflux, overuse (e.g. screaming at a loud event or singing), or irritation.
Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow)
An inflammation of one of the tendons of the elbow, typically following activities that involve heavy gripping, such as tennis. This condition can make gripping very painful, and is typically treated conservatively with rest, ice, and anti-inflammatory medications.
Lead poisoning
Toxic exposure to the metal lead, which can cause damage to many different organs. Lead used to be used in paint, and chipped paint in older homes is a common cause of lead poisoning in children.
Leishmaniasis
A disease caused by infection by parasites of the Leishmania group. It is spread by sandfly bites. It often presents with large skin and/or mucous membrane sores, possibly also involving the vital organs. It is very common in underdeveloped, tropical areas.
Leptospirosis
A disease caused by the bacteria of the group Leptospira. It is most often spread to humans by water contaminated with animal urine. In some, the infection may have no symptoms at all; in others, it may lead to kidney, liver, lung, or brain damage.
Leukemia
A cancer of the blood or bone marrow in which there is a large increase in the number of immature white blood cells. These can occur in adults and children and many types have excellent cure rates with treatment.
Lewy body dementia
A type of dementia (loss of global cognitive ability) sometimes also leading to visual hallucinations and unusual behavior. It often involves Parkinson-like symptoms, including rigid muscles, slowed movements, and tremors. The cause is not fully understood.
Lice
Infection of an area of hairy skin by the tiny, wingless, parasitic insects of the Pediculus group. It is very contagious, though not dangerous. It can cause scalp irritation, and scratching can then lead to bacterial infection. It is often treated with anti-parasitic shampoos.
Lichen planus
A disease of the skin and mucous membranes (e.g. inside of the mouth, anus, etc.) marked by a thickened, rough, purple appearance of the skin. It can also involve vesicles or ulcers, and is often itchy. The cause is unknown, though it is thought to involve attack from the body's immune system.
Lichen simplex
A skin condition resulting from constant itching and scratching. It is common in people who have conditions that predispose them to itching or scratching the skin, such as skin allergies, eczema, psoriasis, or emotional problems (including anxiety). Symptoms resolve when scratching subsides.
Lipoma
A non-dangerous tumor of adipose tissue (the cells that carry body fat). Treatment is typically not necessary, unless it causes pain or restricts movement.
Liver cancer
A malignant transformation of the tissues of the liver. The liver is a digestive organ that has a variety of functions. The most common risk factor is infection from hepatitis b or hepatitis c viruses.
Liver disease
Damage to the liver, an organ with many vital functions, including metabolism and toxin removal. There are many types of liver disease, including hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, cancers of the liver, and damage from various auto-immune conditions.
Lumbago
Also called "lower back pain," this can be caused by various problems relating to the muscles, joints, or bones in the lower back. Often no single cause can be identified.
Lung cancer
A malignant growth in the tissues of the lung. Smokers are at significant risk for the development of lung cancer.
Lung contusion
Bruising of the lung, typically caused by injury to the chest. It is the result of damage to the tiny blood vessels in the lung, leading to build up of blood and other fluids. If severe, it can interfere with the lung's ability to bring oxygen to the blood.
Lyme disease
Infection caused by the Borrelia group of bacteria. It is commonly carried and spread to humans by deer tick bites. A hallmark symptom after initial infection is a "bulls-eye" rash. If left untreated, infection can lead to a variety of symptoms, including damage to the brain and heart.
Lymphadenitis
Inflammation of the lymph nodes (small organs involved in the immune system). Causes include infections and auto-immune disorders. Swollen lymph nodes are often easily felt along the jaw, behind the ears, and along the collarbone. They can be tender to the touch.
Lymphangitis
An inflammation or infection of the lymphatic system (a system of vessels that carries lymph fluid, an important part of the immune system). This most commonly occurs due to bacterial or fungal infection.
Lymphedema
Swelling, typically in one arm or leg, due to blockage of the lymphatic system (a drainage network that helps with the immune system), leading to backed up lymphatic fluid in the tissues. Some types of lymphedema are inherited, while others are caused by surgery, radiation therapy, or swelling of the lymph nodes due to infection or cancer.
Lymphogranuloma venereum
A sexually transmitted infection caused by certain strains of the same bacteria that causes Chlamydia. In the United States, it is very rare, except among those with HIV infections. If not treated, it may lead to serious complications.
Lymphoma
A cancer of the white blood cells, typically forming in the organs that produce or house white blood cells, such as the spleen, bone marrow, or lymph nodes. These cancers can occur in adults or children, and certain types are highly curable with radiation or chemotherapy.
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