Listing conditions

Displaying 351 - 400 of 801 in total

Hypercalcemia
A condition in which blood levels of calcium are too high. The most common cause is increased activity of the parathyroid glands, the structures that regulate blood calcium. Other causes include cancer, certain inflammatory diseases, and certain medications and supplements.
Hypercholesterolemia
Also called "high cholesterol," this is when there is too much cholesterol, a waxy substance the body needs to build cells, in the blood. Cholesterol and fats eventually "stick" to blood vessels leading to heart disease.
Hyperemesis gravidarum
A complication of pregnancy in which the woman experiences nausea and vomiting that is severe and will not go away, potentially leading to dehydration and electrolyte imbalances. The cause is poorly understood.
Hypergammaglobulinemia
A group of conditions marked by increased levels of a specific type of antibody. An antibody is a type of protein that helps fight infections. Patients with this condition have weakened immune systems and are susceptible to infections.
Hyperhidrosis
Excessive and unpredictable sweating, such as in cool weather or at rest. It can be unrelated to any other condition (primary hyperhidrosis), in which case it tends to run in families. It may also be caused by other medical conditions, such as hyperthyroidism, anxiety disorders, and carcinoid syndrome.
Hyperkalemia
A condition in which the concentration of the electrolyte potassium in the blood is too high. If high enough, it can be a medical emergency due to risk of abnormal heart rhythms. Causes include kidney failure, medications, hormone imbalances, and conditions leading to cell death.
Hyperlipidemia
This is when there are too many fatty substances in the blood. The fat eventually "sticks" to blood vessels leading to heart disease. "High cholesterol" is one form of hyperlipidemia.
Hypernatremia
An electrolyte disturbance marked by high blood levels of sodium. It is most commonly due to dehydration or certain hormonal problems such as diabetes insipidus.
Hyperopia
Commonly known as "farsightedness," this is a defect in vision in which it is difficult to focus on nearby objects (e.g. when reading). Though often caused by weakening muscles in the eyeball with advancing age, it can occur for a variety of other reasons in any age group.
Hyperosmotic hyperketotic state
A complication of diabetes in which high blood sugars lead to severe dehydration and risk of many complications, including blood clots and neurological complications that may lead to coma and death. It requires immediate medical care.
Hypertension of pregnancy
High blood pressure in a pregnant woman. This is not uncommon, but if not properly managed can lead to complications in pregnancy. If accompanied by excess protein in the urine, it may be a sign of a more serious and potentially life-threatening condition known as pre-eclampsia.
Hypertensive heart disease
Heart disease that is due to chronically elevated blood pressure. This includes heart failure, coronary artery disease (the condition that leads to heart attacks), abnormal thickening of the heart muscles, and abnormal heart rhythms.
Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM)
A condition in which part of the muscles of the heart begin to thicken without an obvious cause. It often does not cause symptoms until during strenuous exercise, at which point it can cause sudden death (often in young athletes). It is genetic and runs in families.
Hypocalcemia
Low levels of calcium in the blood. This can lead to a variety of problems, include muscle spasms, seizures, and heart rhythm abnormalities. Common causes include parathyroid disorders, low levels of vitamin D, and kidney disease.
Hypoglycemia
A low blood sugar level. The sugar glucose is the primary fuel for the brain, and without it the brain may begin to lose its function or eventually become damaged. It is commonly caused by diabetics taking too much insulin. Hypoglycemia may have symptoms similar to stroke (e.g. difficulty speaking). Both are a medical emergency.
Hypokalemia
An electrolyte imbalance of the blood in which the potassium level is too low. Potassium is important for the electrical coordination of nerve impulses and muscle contraction. Hypokalemia can lead to muscle weakness and heart rhythm abnormalities.
Hyponatremia
An electrolyte imbalance in which sodium concentration in the blood is too low. This can lead to nausea, confusion, muscle weakness, seizures, and even coma. Potential causes include conditions causing fluid retention (e.g. heart failure, cirrhosis, etc.), conditions causing fluid loss (e.g. diarrhea, vomiting), and various hormonal conditions (e.g. SIADH, Addison's disease).
Hypospadias
A birth defect of the urethra, the tube that carries urine out of the body, in males. Instead of opening at the tip of the penis, it opens on the bottom side of the penis. It is associated with other birth defects, and the cause is not fully understood.
Hypothermia
A condition in which the core body temperature is lower than that required to function normally. Typically this is considered to be below 35.0 °C (95.0 °F). This can lead to a number of symptoms and may eventually lead to death. It is caused by exposure to low outside temperatures, made worse if alcohol is used or if swimming. This is a medical emergency.
Hypothyroidism
A relative deficiency of thyroid hormone (T3). T3 is the major regulator of metabolism - slowing of the body's metabolism leads to lower body temperature, constipation, and may be life-threatening if severe.
Hypovolemia
Low blood volume. Common causes include bleeding, burns, excessive sweating, diarrhea, or vomiting. Significantly lowered blood volume can lead to a state known as "shock" in which blood pressure is very low and the tissues of the body are not getting enough oxygen from the blood. This can be life threatening.
Idiopathic absence of menstruation
A prolonged period of time without any menstrual flow (i.e. the period). It is described as idiopathic when a cause cannot be been determined despite adequate workup by a physician.
Idiopathic excessive menstruation
Any increase in how often a woman has menstrual cycles (i.e. "the period") or how much flow she has during these cycles, for which there is no clear cause despite workup by a physician.
Idiopathic infrequent menstruation
A condition in which menstrual cycles (i.e. "the period") in women do not occur as often as they normally should (every 21 to 35 days). It is considered idiopathic if no known cause can be found despite adequate workup by a physician.
Idiopathic irregular menstrual cycle
A condition in which a woman's menstrual cycle (i.e. "the period") are not regular in timing, yet an exact cause cannot be found despite testing. Menstrual cycles usually occur consistently every 21 to 35 days.
Idiopathic nonmenstrual bleeding
Bleeding from the vagina that is not during menstruation (i.e. "the period") and for which a cause cannot be determined, despite thorough investigation by a physician.
Idiopathic painful menstruation
Pain during a woman's menstrual cycle (e.g. "the period") that is more than typical cramping and for which a cause cannot be determined despite workup by a physician.
Ileus
A loss of the ability by the bowels to move or propel bowel contents down the gastrointestinal tract by way of a process known as peristalsis. Risk factors include recent bowel surgery, electrolyte imbalances, metabolic disorders, and certain medications such as opiates.
Impetigo
A contagious bacterial infection of the skin, commonly occurring in school-age children and adults who spend time in close contacts (e.g. sports teams, military). It is treated with antibiotics.
Impulse control disorder
A psychological condition marked by an inability to resist temptations or urges that can be destructive to the person or society. This can include urges to steal, start fires, gamble, or pull hair.
Indigestion
A condition occuring after meals in which the person experiences symptoms such as heartburn, bloating, or nausea. It is typically caused by acid reflux or gastritis, and often treated with medications that decrease stomach acid or bloating.
Induced abortion
The purposeful termination of pregnancy by removing the fetus or embryo from the womb before it is viable. Though very safe when performed by a physician through legal means, it can be life threatening when attempted without proper medical care.
Infection of open wound
An infection of the tissue within an area of broken skin or mucous membrane. The skin acts as a barrier for infection and so wounds such as surgical incisions or cuts are common sites of infection. These can be prevented with proper wound care.
Infectious gastroenteritis
Inflammation of the stomach and the small intestine due to bacteria, viruses or parasites. Vomiting and diarrhea are the hallmarks of this illness, It is commonly associated with painful cramping.
Ingrown toe nail
A common, painful condition in which the toenail grows into the skin on either side of it. The most common cause is tight-fitting shoes that push the side of the toe into the nail, sometimes leading to an infection.
Inguinal hernia
An out-pouching of the abdominal cavity into the inguinal canal (a tube located in the groin). While some hernias can be a mere cosmetic nuisance, others can entrap a loop of bowel leading to a medical emergency. Evaluation by a physician is advisable.
Injury of the ankle
Any irritation or damage to the muscles, tendons, bones, or ligaments of the ankle. The injury may heal on its own quickly, require surgery, or be chronic.
Injury to internal organ
Any damage to the organs inside of the body. This can occur due to "blunt trauma" in which the body experiences severe impacts such as car accidents, or due to "penetrating trauma" in which an object such as a bullet or knife enters the body.
Injury to the abdomen
Any damage to the organs in the abdomen due to traumatic injury. It is often divided between blunt (impact) injuries and penetrating (piercing) injuries. If there is severe bleeding or significant damage, this can be a life threatening medical emergency.
Injury to the arm
Any damage done to the arm, either by impact from an external source or by overuse. Examples include broken bones, bruises, muscle tears, or inflammation of the tendons.
Injury to the face
Any damage done to the face, typically due to impact from an external source or by overuse. Examples include broken bones, bruises, or cuts.
Injury to the finger
Any damage done to the finger, either by impact from an external source or by overuse. Examples include broken bones, bruises, cuts, and tears to the muscles, ligaments, or tendons.
Injury to the hand
Any irritation or damage to the muscles, tendons, bones, or ligaments of the hand. The injury may heal on its own quickly, require surgery, or be chronic.
Injury to the hip
Any irritation or damage to the muscles, tendons, bones, or ligaments of the hip. The injury may heal on its own quickly, require surgery, or be chronic.
Injury to the knee
Any irritation or damage to the muscles, tendons, bones, or ligaments of the hand. The injury may heal on its own quickly, require surgery, or be chronic.
Injury to the leg
Any damage done to the leg, either by impact from an external source or by overuse. Examples include broken bones, bruises, muscle tears, or cuts.
Injury to the shoulder
Any damage done to the shoulder, either by impact from an external source or by overuse. Examples include broken bones, bruises, muscle tears, or inflammation of the tendons.
Injury to the spinal cord
Any damage to the spinal cord, the bundle of nerves within the spine that transfers information between the brain and most of the body, due to physical impact or trauma. Severity can vary from minor, temporary symptoms to complete paralysis (inability to move) below the level of injury.
Injury to the trunk
Any damage done to the chest, belly, or back, either by impact from an external source or by overuse. Examples include broken bones, bruises, cuts, and tears to the muscles, ligaments, or tendons.
Insect bite
A local reaction of the skin to an arthropod's bite. While the bite itself may be itchy or irritating, some insects such as tics and mosquitoes can transmit disease. Please see a physician if you develop symptoms affecting the rest of the body.
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