Listing conditions

Displaying 301 - 350 of 801 in total

Genital herpes
Infection of the exterior sexual organs in either men or women by one of the herpes simplex viruses. This is a sexually transmitted disease that lead to occasional outbreaks of painful rash and blisters on the genitals. The condition is treatable but not curable.
Gestational diabetes
An increase in blood sugar levels in a pregnant woman who did not previously have diabetes. This condition needs to be carefully monitored for the safety of the baby, and though blood sugar levels typically return to normal after pregnancy, the woman is at risk for developing diabetes in the future.
Glaucoma
An increase in the pressure inside of the eyeball leading to damage to the nerve that brings visual signals to the brain. There are two forms: open-angle (90% of cases, painless, slowly progressing) and closed-angle (10% of cases, painful, a medical emergency).
Glucocorticoid deficiency
Low blood levels of glucocorticoids, the steroid hormones released by the adrenal glands that are involved in the body's response to stresses. This may be due to issues with the adrenal gland or the structures in the brain that signal the adrenal glands to release glucocorticoids. This may also refer specifically to familial glucocorticoid deficiency, a rare genetic condition.
Goiter
A swelling of the neck due to enlargement of the thyroid gland. The thyroid creates hormones involved in metabolism and other functions. Worldwide, it is most likely to be caused by iodine deficiency, but in the United States it is more likely to be caused by nodules or changes in thyroid hormone levels.
Gonorrhea
A common sexually transmitted disease caused by the bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoea. Though readily treated with antibiotics, if left untreated it can lead to serious health consequences, such as infertility and permanent joint or heart valve disease.
Gout
A painful joint disorder in which uric acid deposits inside a joint. The big toe is most commonly affected. Onset is often overnight and the disease recurs every so often. While not life threatening, gout is intensely painful.
Granuloma inguinale
A sexually transmitted infection by the bacteria Klebsiella granulomatis, leading to genital ulcers. It is more common in less developed regions. It can be effectively treated with antibiotics.
Graves disease
The thyroid gland releases hormones responsible for energy consumption. In Graves disease, the immune system causes the thyroid to be overactive and release too many hormones. Treatments include medications to suppress hormone release, as well as radiation or surgery to remove the thyroid.
Guillain Barre syndrome
A disorder in which the body's immune system attacks the nerves outside of the brain and the spinal cord. This leads to muscle weakness and paralysis (inability to voluntarily move muscles). It can be life-threatening due to failure of the muscles involved in breathing. The disease is often triggered by an infection.
Gum disease
An illness affecting the soft tissues holding the teeth in place. Infected gums may recede, causing the teeth to become loose in their sockets and prone to falling out. Alternatively, the infection may spread to the jaw bone or form an abscess.
Gynecomastia
The development of breast tissue in men. It is not dangerous and commonly occurs during puberty (usually resolving with age). More than a quarter of men over 50 have gynecomastia. However, It can also be a side effect of certain medications or a sign of other disorders such as liver failure.
Hammer toe
A deformity in one or all of the three middle toes, affecting the joint closest to the foot. It is caused by wearing tight fitting shoes, forcing the toes to be bent; over time this leads to the muscles permanently shortening. It can also be caused by damage to the foot from other diseases, such osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and diabetes.
Hashimoto thyroiditis
An often inherited disorder characterized by inflammation of the thyroid gland due to attack from the body's own immune system. The thyroid releases hormones that help regulate metabolism. This is the most common cause of hypothyroidism (low thyroid hormone) in North America. It is typically treated with thyroid hormone replacement therapy.
Headache after lumbar puncture
A headache that arises due to a lumbar puncture (a medical test in which a needle is placed into the spine to drain spinal fluid). It is thought to occur due to changes in pressure between the brain and the spinal cord. It may occur up to five days after the procedure and is typically not harmful.
Head and neck cancer
A malignant transformation of the tissues of the the mucus membranes of the mouth, sinuses, or throat. Risk factors include alcohol, tobacco, and certain viruses. Treatments include radiation, chemotherapy, and surgery.
Head injury
An injury to the head caused by an impact or from rapidly going from high speeds to low speeds. Possible results from head injuries include a concussion, brain bleed, or broken skull.
Heart attack
A condition in which enough oxygen is not provided to the muscles of the heart, typically because of a blockage in the blood vessels that feed the heart. This is a medical emergency.
Heart block
A disorder of the electrical conduction system in the heart, in which the signal for the heart to beat is not properly transmitted. This can lead to lightheadedness, fainting, and palpitations. It can be life-threatening if not treated.
Heart contusion
A bruise to the muscle of the heart, commonly due to significant impact injuries, such as car accidents or falls from great heights. This can cause serious problems in the heart's ability to pump, and symptoms range from mild to potentially life threatening.
Heart failure
A condition in which the heart cannot pump enough blood to meet the body's demands. It can be caused by a heart attack or other damage to the heart muscles, long-standing high blood pressure, or abnormal heart valves.
Heat exhaustion
A condition that occurs in result of overheating of the body. It typically occurs after exposure to high temperatures, often in combination with high humidity and extreme physical activity. Without treatment, it may progress to a condition known as heat stroke, which is life-threatening.
Heat stroke
A serious condition defined as a body temperature greater than 40.6 °C (105.1 °F) due to exposure to high levels of heat. It is most common after prolonged physical activity in extremely hot, humid weather, with little intake of fluids. It is a medical emergency and can lead to permanent damage to the brain, heart, kidneys, and muscles.
Hemangioma
A non-dangerous tumor of the inner lining of blood vessels, most commonly on the skin or in the liver. They often occur in infancy, but typically resolve by age 5. They also commonly occur with advancing age.
Hemarthrosis
Bleeding into the spaces of a joint. It typically occurs after physical injury in patients predisposed to bleeding (e.g. patients with hemophilia, patients taking blood thinners).
Hematoma
An area of blood that is not contained within blood vessels. This is a result of injury to blood vessels, leading to internal bleeding. An example includes bruises, which are visible when blood has leaked into or just under the skin.
Hemiplegia
A complete or partial paralysis (inability to move) the arm, leg, and/or trunk on one side of the body. This is due to damage to the motor centers of the brain. It can be present from birth, or be due to stroke, traumatic brain injury, or other issues.
Hemochromatosis
Primarily a genetic disease that runs in families, in which too much iron is absorbed and retained from food, leading to iron deposits in organs such as the liver, heart and pancreas. This can lead to life-threatening conditions.
Hemolytic anemia
A condition in which the body does not have enough healthy blood cells due to their early destruction. Common causes include attack by the immune system, certain genetic defects (such as sickle cell anemia or G6PD deficiency), blood clots, or blood transfusion with poorly matched blood.
Hemophilia
An uncommon bleeding disorder that is usually genetic and runs in families. It is characterized by the lack of a specific protein necessary for clotting the blood (the process by which bleeding is stopped). Symptoms can range in severity.
Hemorrhagic fever
A diverse group of disease caused by a variety of viruses, all of which lead to fever and bleeding disorders. Some are mild, while others (such as the ebola virus) are deadly.
Hemorrhoids
Enlarged veins in the anus. They are typically the result of increased pressure (e.g. straining, lifting weights) or poor blood drainage from the area (e.g. liver disease). When hemorrhoids burst, rectal bleeding can be significant.
Hepatic encephalopathy
The occurrence of confusion and altered levels of consciousness due to liver failure. Though the exact cause is unknown, it is thought to be due to accumulation of certain toxins that the liver eliminates, such as ammonia. In patients with longstanding liver failure, the following may trigger encephalopathy: dehydration, eating too much protein, electrolyte abnormalities, and infection.
Hepatitis due to a toxin
Inflammation of the liver due to exposure to a chemical toxin. These include alcohol, over the counter pain medications (especially acetaminophen), certain prescription medications, and certain industrial chemicals. This requires immediate medical evaluation.
Herniated disk
A condition in which the soft core of a disk in the spine pops out of its hard capsule. It tends to squeeze out the back of the disk, and can press on the spine or nerves leaving the spine, causing pain, numbness or weakness in the legs.
Herpangina
Blisters of the mouth typically caused by infection from the coxsackievirus family. Typically occurring in the summer and affecting children, it is transmitted either by sneezing or feces. Symptoms typically resolve on their own in less than a week.
Hiatal hernia
A condition in which the stomach pokes out through a hole in the diaphragm into the chest cavity; this condition is fairly common and often does not require surgery, but it can lead to indigestion or other problems.
Hidradenitis suppurativa
A chronic skin condition in which pus-filled pockets develop as lumps in areas where the skin tends to rub, such as the groin, armpits, under the breasts, or between the buttocks. These tend to develop due to blockage of hair follicles, leading to pockets of infection.
High blood pressure
Blood pressure being consistently above 139/89. Either the first number (systolic) or the second number (diastolic) may be high. This can cause the heart to work harder to pump blood, leading to heart disease.
Hirschsprung disease
A disease that is present at birth in which the nerves supplying the muscles of the lower part of the large intestine (i.e. colon) are missing. This can cause difficulties in passing stool. The exact cause is unknown and may require surgery to treat.
Hirsutism
A condition of excess hairiness in women, particularly involving coarse dark hairs growing in places they do not usually occur, such as the cheeks or chest. There are a number of causes, including polycystic ovary syndrome, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, Cushing's disease, and certain medications.
Histoplasmosis
A disease caused by infection by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. It is common among patients with HIV/AIDS and other causes of lowered immune system. It is often spread from bird droppings in the soil being released into the air during construction or other activities.
Hormone disorder
Any disease causing problems with hormones, the chemicals that regulate many bodily functions. This includes thyroid diseases, delayed or early puberty, growth problems, diabetes, and many other diseases.
HPV
A group of viruses known as human papillomaviruses that cause warts on the hands, feet, and genitals. Some forms are sexually transmitted, and can lead to a variety of cancers, most commonly of the cervix.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV)
A blood-borne illness which affects and kills a group of white blood cells called CD4. Without these cells, patients are prone to opportunistic infections and cancer. When certain infections occurs or levels of CD4 cells are very low, the person is said to have AIDS. HIV can be effectively treated with medication long-term, but at this time cannot be cured.
Huntington disease
A genetic disorder that runs in families, leading to slow damage to parts of the brain which results in abnormal muscle coordination, psychiatric problems, and reduced mental capabilities. Symptoms usually begin between age 35 and 44.
Hydatidiform mole
A noncancerous mass or growth of tissue that forms inside of the womb at the beginning of pregnancy. The exact cause is not fully understood, but it is due to a major problem during conception, leading to a nonviable fertilized egg (for instance, sperm combining with an egg without DNA or an egg combining with 2 sperms)
Hydrocele of the testicle
A typically harmless, fluid-filled sac that forms around the testicle causing swelling of the scrotum (the loose bag of skin holding the testicles). They are common in newborns, and typically disappear by the age of one. In adults, they are formed due to inflammation or injury, and may be a sign of other diseases.
Hydrocephalus
A condition in which there is an abnormal amount of cerebrospinal fluid (a normal body fluid that cushions and protects the brain) in the cavities of the brain. This can lead to increased pressure inside of the skull, causing serious neurological damage and even death. There are a variety of causes, some from birth, and some acquired later in life.
Hydronephrosis
Fluid collection in the kidney due to blockage of the flow of urine. This can be caused by enlarged prostate, kidney stones, or blood clots.
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