Listing conditions

Displaying 201 - 250 of 801 in total

Dislocation of the patella
An injury to the knee in which the patella (i.e. kneecap) slips out of its normal position, leading to pain and swelling. It often occurs after direct injury or a sudden twisting at the knee joint. It may be treated conservatively or require surgery.
Dislocation of the shoulder
A separation of the upper arm bone from the joint that connects it to the trunk. It is typically caused by impact, and though often easily fixed without surgery, there is risk of nerve or artery damage. Some people are prone to frequent shoulder dislocations.
Dislocation of the vertebra
An injury to the spine in which the bones of the spine slip out of their normal position. It often occurs after significant direct injury, such as car accidents or falls. For this to occur, the ligaments of the spine are typically also significantly injured. This is dangerous, potentially leading to damage to the spinal cord. It may be treated conservatively or require surgery.
Dislocation of the wrist
An injury to the wrist in which the bones of the hand slip out of their normal position with the bones of the forearm, leading to pain and swelling. It often occurs after direct injury, such as car accidents or falls. It may be treated conservatively or require surgery.
Dissociative disorder
A psychological condition in which a person involuntarily loses memory, awareness, identity, or perception following a significant life trauma.
Diverticulitis
Inflammation of small outpouchings ("diverticula") in the large intestine. People with low fiber in their diet can develop these outpouchings when they get older, and bacteria can grow in them causing this disease process.
Diverticulosis
An out-pouching of the inner layer of the colon through a weakness in the outer muscular layer of the colon. Risk factors include older age, low fiber diet, and chronic constipation.
Down syndrome
A genetic disorder, present from birth, characterized by slow growth, mild to moderate intellectual disability, and characteristic facial features. It is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21. It is associated with advanced maternal age at time of pregnancy.
Drug abuse
A condition in which someone continues to use drugs (including street drugs, alcohol, and prescription medications) despite it causing problems in the person's life (e.g. arrests, career or relationship problems, health).
Drug abuse (barbiturates)
A condition in which someone continues to use barbituates ("barbs" or "downers") despite it causing problems in the person's life (e.g. arrests, career or relationship problems, health).
Drug abuse (cocaine)
When an individual snorts, smokes (crack), or injects cocaine. Using cocaine can put an enormous strain on the heart and actually cause a heart attack in otherwise healthy individuals.
Drug abuse (methamphetamine)
A condition in which someone continues to use methamphetamine ("crystal meth") despite it causing problems in the person's life (e.g. arrests, career or relationship problems, health).
Drug abuse (opioids)
A condition in which someone continues to use opioid drugs (e.g. heroin, morphine, prescription pain killers such as oxycodone) despite it causing problems in the person's life (e.g. arrests, career or relationship problems, health).
Drug poisoning due to medication
An abnormally high level of a prescription medication in the body leading to damage. This can be caused by intentional or unintentional overdose, combination with interacting medications, or diseases that prevent drug breakdown or elimination. This can be a medical emergency.
Drug reaction
An umbrella term for an undesired and often unpleasant effect of a drug. This can be a consequence of prolonged use (e.g. stomach ulcers from NSAIDs), idiosyncratic (e.g. red-man syndrome from vancomycin), or allergic (e.g. penicillin allergy).
Drug withdrawal
A pattern of symptoms that occurs after discontinuing or decreasing the use of certain medications or recreational drugs. It is a hallmark of chemical dependency, and the timing and exact symptoms differ based on the drug. Abrupt discontinuation of certain drugs, such as alcohol, can be life-threatening.
Dry eye of unknown cause
A gritty sensation which can be irritating and lead to feeling fatigued. Either tears are not produced fast enough or they evaporate too quickly. Prolonged dryness of the surface of the eye can lead to inflammation.
Dumping syndrome
A gritty sensation which can be irritating and lead to feeling fatigued. Either tears are not produced fast enough or they evaporate too quickly. Prolonged dryness of the surface of the eye can lead to inflammation.
Dyshidrosis
A skin condition characterized by small itchy blisters on the hands or feet that may later scale and thicken. The cause is not known, though various allergies appear to trigger episodes.
Dysthymic disorder
Similar to depression but generally less severe. Patients often feel hopeless, have difficulty sleeping, sleep too much, have difficulty concentrating, and may be irritable. If the patient voices suicidal thoughts, call 911 immediately.
Ear drum damage
Similar to depression, but generally less severe. Patients often feel hopeless, have difficulty sleeping or sleep too much, have difficulty concentrating, and may be irritable. If the patient voices suicidal thoughts, call 911 immediately.
Ear wax impaction
Buildup of the natural waxy substance released inside the ears to protect from infection. It is often the result of attempts to use hygeine products such as cotton swabs to clean the ears instead of letting ear wax clear naturally. This can lead to a feeling of ear fullness and pain.
Eating disorder
A psychological condition characterized by abnormal eating habits (either too much or too little food intake) that are detrimental to the person. This includes conditions such as anorexia, bulemia, binge eating, etc.
Ectopic pregnancy
A complication of pregnancy in which the embryo is implanted outside of "the womb" or uterine cavity. These pregnancies generally cannot result in viable birth and can lead to potentially life-threatening bleeding in the mother. Risk factors include a history of pelvic inflammatory disease, prior surgeries, and use of intrauterine devices.
Ectropion
A condition in which the lower eyelid turns outwards. It can occur with certain congenital disorders, aging due to weakening of the lower eyelid tissues, certain anti-cancer therapies, and other causes.
Eczema
A condition marked by inflammation of the skin. Also known as atopic dermatitis, the exact cause of this condition is unknown but presumed to be a combination of environmental irritants and genetic predisposition.
Edward syndrome
A genetic disorder, present from birth, characterized by heart defects, physical deformities, intellectual disability, and many other problems. It is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 18. It is associated with advanced maternal age at time of pregnancy. Only 3% of cases result in live birth, and those rarely survive beyond the first year of life.
Emphysema
A condition in which the air sacs of the lungs are gradually destroyed, leading to increasing shortness of breath and inability to provide oxygen to the body. It can be caused by smoking, exposure to air pollutants, or a rare genetic disorder.
Empyema
A collection of pus in the space between the lungs and the chest wall, usually caused by spread of an infection of the lung. This can put pressure on the lungs and may require drainage to treat.
Encephalitis
Inflammation of the brain. It is often caused by viral infections (such as rabies or herpes simplex), bacterial infections, and certain auto-immune conditions. It can be potentially life threatening.
Endocarditis
An infection of the inner layer of the heart. It typically occurs when bacteria or other germs enter the bloodstream and collect on damaged or artificial valves in the heart. It is uncommon in healthy hearts, except in IV drug users. It can lead to many life-threatening complications and requires prompt treatment with antibiotics.
Endometrial cancer
A malignant transformation of the cells of the inner lining of the uterus. The uterus is the female reproductive organ that holds the fetus during pregnancy. Diagnosis is typically made after a gynecologist performs an endometrial biopsy.
Endometrial hyperplasia
A condition of excess growth of the cells of the endometrium, the inner lining of the uterus (i.e. the womb). Most cases are due to high levels of estrogen hormones. This is common in obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome, certain tumors, and estrogen replacement therapy.
Endometriosis
A condition in which the type of tissue that typically lines the inside cavity of the uterus (i.e. the womb) begins growing outside of the uterine cavity. This often leads to extremely painful menstrual cycles (i.e. the period) and can also lead to infertility.
Endophthalmitis
Inflammation of the inner parts of the eyeball, typically due to infection. This is often a complication of eye surgery and can lead to blindness or loss of the entire eyeball.
Envenomation from spider or animal bite
A bite from an animal (e.g. snake) or spider that involved spread of venom into the body. Some venoms are toxic to the nerves leading to muscle spasms while others are toxic to the skin leading to breakdown. There are antidotes to many venoms available.
Ependymoma
A tumor that arises from the ependyma, a tissue of the central nervous system in the brain or spinal cord.
Epididymitis
An inflammation of the tightly coiled tube in the scrotum (the loose bag of skin under the penis) that stores sperm. This is most commonly due to bacterial sexually transmitted diseases, but can also be caused by other infections, the heart medication amiodarone, auto-immune disorders, or urine backflow.
Epidural hemorrhage
An accumulation of blood between the skull and the outermost layer of the meninges, the thin membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord. It is most commonly due to direct blows to the brain, leading to damage to the blood vessels. It is a medical emergency.
Epilepsy
A chronic neurological disorder in which patients are prone to seizures. A isolated seizure does not mean a patient has epilepsy as there are multiple causes for seizures (e.g. seizures due to fever in a child).
Erectile dysfunction
The inability to achieve or maintain an erection. The cause can be biologic (e.g. insufficient blood flow) or psychogenic (e.g. anxiety). While episodes of erectile dysfunction are normal, prolonged impairment should be evaluated by a physician.
Erythema multiforme
A rash of the skin and mucus membranes that usually follows an infection or drug exposure, possibly mediated by deposition of immune-related proteins into the area.
Esophageal cancer
A malignant transformation of the tissues of the esophagus, the tube that takes food from the mouth to the stomach. Risk factors include smoking, alcohol, and gastric reflux disease.
Esophageal varices
Abnormal, enlarged veins in the lower part of the esophagus, the tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach. These most commonly occur when blood flow to the liver is blocked, leading to backup in the esophageal veins. Causes include severe liver disease, blood clots, and certain parasitic infections. This is very dangerous, due to risk of life threatening bleeding.
Esophagitis
An inflammation of the esophagus, the structure though which food reaches the stomach from the mouth. Common causes include infection, chronic reflux, alcoholism, radiation therapy, and certain allergic conditions.
Essential tremor
A common, non-dangerous, movement disorder of unknown cause characterized by shaking of body parts when they are being actively moved. If symptoms significantly negatively affect a person's life, there are available treatments.
Eustachian tube dysfunction (ear disorder)
Characterized by failure of the middle ear to be sufficiently vented. Normally, middle ear secretions are drained through the Eustachian tube into the back of the nose. Without this pathway, patients commonly develop middle ear infection.
Extrapyramidal effect of drugs
Extrapyramidal symptoms include muscle spasms, a feeling of restlessness of the limbs, rigidity, tremor, slowed movements, inability to initiate purposeful movements, facial grimacing, and lip smacking. They are often a side effect of medications that reduce levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine. These include many anti-psychotic medications, certain anti-nausea medications, and certain anti-depressant medications.
Eye alignment disorder
Often described as "cross eye," this is a condition in which the two eyeballs are not coordinated and aligned when looking at an object. It can be due to a disorder of the brain or of the nerves or muscles of the eyes.
Factitious disorder
A psychological condition in which a person deliberately pretends to have an illness by exaggerating symptoms. A person may go so far as to cause themselves physical harm in order to convince others of their illness. Motives vary, but the primary aim is often to obtain sympathy and attention from taking on a "sick role."
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