Listing conditions

Displaying 151 - 200 of 801 in total

Congenital malformation syndrome
A congenital malformation is a physical abnormality of a body part that is present at birth. It is called a syndrome when there are a combination of malformations that fall into one of many stereotyped patterns. The cause varies depending on the specific case.
Congenital rubella
An infection by the rubella virus occurring due to spread from a pregnant mother to the developing fetus. It can lead to deafness, eye abnormalities, heart abnormalities, and other complications. It can be prevented with vaccination.
Conjunctivitis
Commonly known as "pink eye," this an inflammation of the thin outer coating of the eyeballs. It is most often caused by a viral infection and does not require treatment. It can also be caused by bacterial infections, chemical irritants, allergies, etc.
Conjunctivitis due to allergy
An inflammation of the outer membrane of the eyeball due to allergies. An allergy is an abnormal reaction by the immune system to a normal substance (often particles in the air), leading to a predictable pattern of symptoms.
Conjunctivitis due to bacteria
Infection of the surface of the eye and inner lining of the eyelids. Most infections are pyogenic (pus-producing), but infections with Moraxella or Chlamydia may present without discharge. Gonorrheal infection is sight-threatening.
Conjunctivitis due to virus
Commonly known as "pink eye," this is a viral infection of the thin membrane covering the eyeball and inside of the eyelids. The condition is contagious, but typically resolves on its own within two to three weeks. It does not require antibiotics.
Connective tissue disorder
Any of a number of diseases involving the connective tissue, the structures that support and bind together organs. These are often caused by attack by the body's immune system and involve blood vessels (termed: vasculitides).
Contact dermatitis
A reaction of the immune system to certain substances on the surface of the skin. A familiar example is poison ivy. Contact dermatitis can also be due to soaps, detergents, make-up, jewelry, and other substances that contact the skin in people predisposed to get these reactions.
Conversion disorder
A psychological condition in which psychological stress shows up in physical ways. Common symptoms include numbness, blindness, paralysis, and fits, without any identifiable physical cause. A person with conversion disorder truly believes and experiences these symptoms.
Cornea infection
An infection of the transparent front part of the eyeball. It is often causes by scratches in the eye with prolonged contact lens wear. Without treatment it can lead to blindness.
Corneal abrasion
A cut or scrape of the cornea (the see-through front layer of the eyeball). These are often caused by contact lenses or other direct injury to the eyeball. Treatment is typically with prescription eye drops.
Corneal disorder
Any problem relating to the cornea, the outermost layer of the eyeball. These include allergies, infections, diseases causing degeneration such as corneal dystrophies, nearsightedness or farsightedness, and tissue growths such as pterygium.
Coronary atherosclerosis
Hardening of the blood vessels feeding the heart. Eventually, the vessels may become blocked leading to a heart attack. Causes include high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, and diabetes.
Cranial nerve palsy
A dysfunction in the nerve that contracts the muscle that moves the eyeballs outwards (i.e. right eyeball looking right, left eyeball looking left). This can lead to double vision. It is often caused by compression from a mass or pressure in the skull, and thus may be a sign of more serious disease.
Crohn disease
An inflammation of the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. Currently, the cause is unknown. Crohn's Disease may involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus and is commonly associated with diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss, and rectal bleeding.
Croup
An inflammation of the voice box and the airway just below the vocal cords, often due to infection by these viruses: parainfluenza virus, RSV, or adenovirus. Children often have a 'barking' cough while adults tend to have hoarseness.
Crushing injury
An injury in which part of the body experiences a high amount of pressure, often being squeezed or compressed. This is a medical emergency, because the damaged tissue can cause toxins to spread throughout the body affecting other organs.
Cryptococcosis
A fungal infection by the fungi of the cryptococcus group. They are often found in the soil and can lead to infections of the skin, lungs, or tissues covering the brain. Infection is far more likely to occur in people with lowered immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, severe liver disease, certain cancers, and those receiving immune-suppressing medications.
Cryptorchidism
The absence of one or both testes from the scrotum, the loose sack of skin under the penis. It is typically a birth defect, due to failure of one or both tests from descending from the abdomen during development. The testicle will typically either descend on its own or be brought down by a surgeon, but it will often be poorly developed with reduced fertility.
Cushing syndrome
A disorder in which there are high blood levels of the hormone cortisol, a steroid hormone involved in the body's response to stresses. It can occur for a variety of reasons, including taking too much corticosteroid medications (e.g. prednisone) or overactivity of glands involved in cortisone production and release (often as a result of a tumor).
Cysticercosis
Infection after exposure to eggs of Taenia solium, a tapeworm commonly found in pork. The disease is spread through contaminated food and water, potentially causing damage to the brain and muscles.
Cystic Fibrosis
A disease caused by an inherited genetic malfunction of a protein involved in transporting certain electrolytes across cell membranes. This can lead to difficulty breathing and frequent lung infections, scarring of the pancreas leading to diabetees, poor nutrient absorption, chronic constipation and intestinal obstruction, infertility, and poor growth.
Cystitis
Cystitis is a urinary bladder (the organ that holds urine) inflammation that can result from bruising, bacterial or parasitic infection, and medications.
Cyst of the eyelid
A non-cancerous, round, thin-walled, fluid-filled pocket in the eyelid. A common example is a chalazion, which is formed when the glands that form oil to help lubricate the eye get clogged, leading to swelling and cyst formation. Though not dangerous on their own, they may become infected.
Cytomegalovirus infection
A common virus that at some point affects most people. Most of the time there are no symptoms and the virus is cleared, but in those that are pregnant or have a weakened immune systems, it can be dangerous. It is particularly dangerous in pregnant women, because it can spread to the fetus.
Decubitus ulcer
Also known as a bedsore, this is a sore or break in an area of skin that is under chronic amounts of high pressure. These typically form in the skin overlying bones that press against the bed or chair when laying down or sitting.
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
A blood clot in a large vein, more commonly in the leg than the arm. Causes include cancer, immobility, conditions leading to easy clotting, obesity, recent surgery, and congestive heart failure. A clot can dislodge and float to the lung, leading to pulmonary embolism.
Degenerative disc disease
A shrinking of the cushioning discs between the bones of the spine. Although a normal part of aging, disc degeneration may lead to bone pain or compression of nerves, leading to pain, numbness, or weakness.
Delirium
A syndrome of confusion and loss of awareness for location and time that typically comes on rapidly and goes up and down in intensity. This is common in the elderly and is often a reversible symptom of other problems such as infection, medications, and head injury.
Dementia
A loss of cognitive ability (e.g. attention, planning, abstract thought, memory, etc.) that is beyond what is expected with normal aging. Causes include Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia (from multiple small strokes), and lewy body dementia (closely associated with Parkinson's disease).
Dengue fever
An infectious disease caused by the dengue virus; this is most common in tropical climates. In a small percentage of people it is life threatening, involving bleeding and dangerously low blood pressure. It is transmitted by certain mosquitoes. There is no treatment or vaccine.
Dental caries
An infection of the tooth that arises due to secretion of acid by the normal bacteria in the mouth, leading to breakdown of the outside part of the tooth. It is often the consequence of poor diet and poor oral hygiene, although it appears a genetic predisposition also influences the development of this disease.
Depression
A feeling of profound sadness, guilt, hopelessness, lack of energy and/or worthlessness. Suicide risk is high during depressive episodes and may require emergent hospitalization.
De Quervain disease
A painful inflammation of the sheath that surrounds the tendons controlling thumb movement. The cause is unknown, but is thought to involve overuse or direct injury.
Dermatitis due to sun exposure
A type of allergic response to a certain substance leading to a skin rash, but only after the substance is activated by sunlight. Certain medications, as well as certain plants, may cause this condition in some people.
Developmental disability
An umbrella term used for any lifelong physical or mental impairment that is due to an event during pregnancy or childhood. Genetic abnormalities, substance abuse during pregnancy, and autism are the most common causes.
Deviated nasal septum
A shift of the cartilage wall that separates the left from the right nostril. With a deviated septum, one nostril may not be open enough to allow for good airflow, forcing patients to breathe through their mouth.
Diabetes
An inability of the body to process sugar due to a lack of or resistance to insulin, the hormone that regulates blood sugar levels. It is commonly associated with obesity and pregnancy, but can also be the result of autoimmune destruction of the pancreas, the organ that secretes insulin.
Diabetes insipidus
A condition, unrelated diabetes mellitus (the disease normally referred to as "diabetes"), in which the kidneys are not able to conserve water. This leads to increased thirst and urination. This is due to a problem with the kidneys or a problem with a hormone released by part of the brain.
Diabetic ketoacidosis
A medical emergency, this is a complication of diabetes in which lack of insulin leads to dehydration and acid production. It often occurs during times of stress (illness, heart attack, cocaine use, etc.), when the body needs more insulin. It is treated with iv fluids and insulin.
Diabetic kidney disease
Disorder of the kidneys, the organs that filter waste products from blood and produce urine, due to complications from diabetes. High levels of blood sugar make the kidneys filter too much blood, and the extra work eventually leads to damage and inability to filter.
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy
Destruction of the body's sensory nerves (most commonly in the feet and hands) due to damage to the blood vessels that feed the nerves. Damage is caused by chronically high blood sugar from uncontrolled diabetes.
Diabetic retinopathy
Damage of the light-sensing layer of the eye due to diabetes. Small bleeding occurs, clouding the vision. Because permanent blindness can occur, diabetics should receive regular eye exams.
Diaper rash
An inflammation of the skin of a baby's bottom that underlies the diaper. This can be caused by: irritation from stool, urine, or cleaning products; a skin condition such as atopic dermatitis; or an infection.
Dislocation of the ankle
An injury to the ankle in which the bones of the foot slip out of their normal position with the bones of the lower leg, leading to pain and swelling. It often occurs after direct injury, such as car accidents or falls. It may be treated conservatively or require surgery.
Dislocation of the elbow
A seperation of the joint surfaces of the elbow (the bones of the upper arm and forearm do not make proper contact). The most common cause is falling onto an outstretched hand. If severe enough, it may require surgery.
Dislocation of the finger
A common injury in which one of the bones of the finger is shifted out of its normal joint socket. The finger needs to be evaluated and re-aligned by a physician. The finger is normally placed in a splint until it heels.
Dislocation of the foot
An injury to the foot in which one or more of the 26 foot bones lose their normal connections with the other bones. It is often classified as either a forefoot, hind foot, or mid foot injury. It often occurs after direct injury, such as car accidents or falls. It may be treated conservatively or require surgery.
Dislocation of the hip
An injury to the hip in which the head of the femur (the thigh bone) slips out of its normal position in the pelvis (the hip bone), leading to pain and swelling. It often occurs after direct injury, such as car accidents or falls. It may be treated conservatively or require surgery.
Dislocation of the knee
An injury to the knee in which the tibia (the largest bone in the lower leg) loses its connection with the femur (the thigh bone). It often occurs after severe direct injury, such as car accidents or during sports. Typically multiple ligaments (such as the anterior cruciate ligament or ACL) and other structures are also damaged. This requires immediate evaluation due to risk of nerve or blood vessel damage. It almost always requires surgery.
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