Listing conditions

Displaying 101 - 150 of 801 in total

Carbon monoxide poisoning
Damage to the body from inhaling toxic levels of the gas carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide binds to the same molecule that carries oxygen, taking its place and preventing oxygen from reaching the tissues. Common sources include faulty furnaces, heaters, or stoves; leaving a running car in the garage; and fires.
Carcinoid syndrome
A group of symptoms occurring due to carcinoid tumors in certain parts of the bowel. Carcinoid tumors arise from neuroendocrine cells in the gut and release a variety of chemicals leading to symptoms such as flushing, diarrhea, and even heart failure.
Cardiac arrest
A failure of the heart to pump blood so that there is no palpable pulse. This is a medical emergency requiring immediate CPR and possibly electrical shocks known as defibrillations. Causes include heart attacks, abnormal heart rhythms, and many other conditions.
Cardiomyopathy
Poor function of the heart muscle. It can be due to toxins (e.g. alcohol), mechanical problems (dilated cardiomyopathy), lack of blood flow (heart attack), or genetic (e.g. HOCM). Treatment differs based on cause, but patients are at risk for sudden death.
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Compression of the median nerve as it travels through the wrist. Common symptoms include pain, numbness, and/or weakness, especially at night. It is often caused by overuse.
Cataract
Clouding of the lens of the eye. It is common in the elderly, diabeticcs, steroid users, and smokers. Children who develop cataracts often have a metabolic abnormality.
Cat scratch disease
A disease caused by infection from bacteria of the Bartonella group. It is most common in children following a cat scratch or bite. In healthy people, the infection will normally clear without any medication.
Celiac disease
A condition in which the immune system begins to attack the intestines after exposure to certain gluten proteins, often found in wheat and other grains. This can lead to diarrhea, poor growth, and vitamin deficiencies. It is predominately genetic and runs in families. It is treated by reducing intake of glutens.
Cellulitis or abscess of mouth
An infection of the mouth that has either formed a pocket of pus (abscess) or spread across the soft tissue (cellulitis). This is a medical emergency, because it can lead to serious complications, such as spread to the brain or around the heart.
Central atherosclerosis
Atherosclerosis is a condition in which the walls of the arteries, the blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood to the tissues, begin to thicken due to accumulation of calcium and fatty materials. It is referred to as "central" when this process occurs in the major blood vessels, particularly the aorta (the largest artery in the body).
Central retinal artery or vein occlusion
A condition in which one of the blood vessels (artery or vein) that feeds the eyeball becomes blocked or occluded. Blockage of the artery is typically caused by a clot formed somewhere else getting stuck, leading to sudden, severe, painless loss of vision. Blockage of the vein is typically caused by a clot forming in the vein itself, leading to gradual, painful loss of vision.
Cerebral edema
Swelling of the brain due to too much fluid accumulating. Potential causes include physical head injury, stroke, cancer, or brain infection. If severe, it can compress the brain, which can be life threatening.
Cerebral palsy
A group of conditions that cause problems with body movement, coordination, muscle tone, or posture. This can include problems with the muscles of speech, swallowing, and eye movement. It is typically caused by problems in brain development prior to birth. The exact trigger is often unknown.
Cervical cancer
A malignant transformation of the tissues of the cervix in women. The cervix is the area connecting the vagina to the uterus. These cancers are often caused by long-term viral infection and can be prevented with vaccination or regular screening (pap smears).
Cervical disorder
Any problem relating to the cervix in a woman. The cervix is the lowest part of the uterus (i.e. the womb) where it connects with the vagina. Common problems include inflammation or infection, growths (either cancerous or noncancerous), and cervical incompetence (where the cervix is too wide during pregnancy, potentially leading to miscarriage).
Cervicitis
An infection of the cervix, usually from gonorrhea or chlamydia, which can spread into the uterus to cause pelvic inflammatory disease.
Chagas disease
A disease caused by infection by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. It is common in tropical areas of Mexico and Central and South America. It is spread by certain insects and can lead to enlargement of the heart, esophagus, or colon.
Chalazion
A thin-walled, fluid-filled sac that develops on the eyelid. It is caused by inflammation or blockage of a gland. It is usually painless and most often occurs on the upper eyelid.
Chancroid
A sexually transmitted infection by the bacterial Haemophilus ducreyi. It is common in developing countries, but rare in the United States. Effective, single dose treatments exist, but if untreated it can lead to serious consequences.
Chickenpox
A highly contagious disease caused by the virus varicella zoster. Though symptoms tend to resolve on their own, the virus remains dormant in the body's nerves. It may become re-activated as shingles in older age. There is now a readily available vaccine for chickenpox.
Chlamydia
A sexually transmitted infection by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis. This can be spread through vaginal, anal, or oral sex, as well as from mother to child during birth. It can be quickly and effectively treated, but if left untreated, it can lead to serious health consequences such as infertility or blindness.
Cholecystitis
An inflammation of the gallbladder, a structure involved in digestion. It is typically caused by backup from gallstones that may lead to an infection. The most common treatment is surgical removal of the gallbladder.
Choledocholithiasis
The presence of gallstones in the common bile duct, the tube which take contents from the gallbladder and liver into the intestine to help with digestion. This can lead to backup into the liver, causing damage. It often requires surgical intervention.
Cholesteatoma
A noncancerous, though destructive, growth of thick skin tissue in the middle ear or the bones directy behind the ear. Some people are born with this, while others acquire it later in life (for a variety of unclear reasons). It is typically removed with surgery to prevent hearing loss.
Chondromalacia of the patella
A term for damage to the cartilage under the kneecap that causes knee pain in the front of the knee, usually aggravated by walking up or down stairs, kneeling, or squatting. It is most common in young, female athletes participating in running or jumping sports, though it can occur in anyone.
Chorioretinitis
Inflammation of two thin layers of the back of the eye: the choroid (layer with many blood vessels providing nourishment) and the retina (light-sensitive layer where visual image is formed). It is most commonly caused by infections, such as toxoplasmosis, cytomegalavirus, syphyllis, and tuberculosis.
Chronic back pain
Discomfort in the back lasting longer than 12 weeks. It is most common in the lower back.
Chronic constipation
A reduced frequency of bowel movements or the need to significantly strain during a bowel movement. Stool often becomes very hard in constipated patients.
Chronic glaucoma
Degradation of the head of the optic nerve, usually caused by increased pressure in the eye. Peripheral vision is impaired first, followed by central vision. Untreated, it may progress to blindness
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP)
A nuerologic condition in which the protective coating of nerves becomes damaged, leading to weakness and loss of sensation in the arms and legs. It is thought to involve the immune system and is considered a chronic counterpart to Guillain-Barré syndrome.
Chronic kidney disease
A progressive loss, over months to years, of the kidneys' ability to filter blood and produce urine. The most common causes are persistent high blood pressure and uncontrolled diabetes.
Chronic knee pain
A condition in which knee pain persists for a long period of time. Pain is often worse when bearing weight on the joint (walking, running, jumping, etc.). Causes include inflammation of the joints, tendons, or bursa of the knee.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
Usually the result of prolonged exposure to cigarette smoke. Damage to the lungs makes it difficult to absorb oxygen and breathing out becomes more difficult. COPD exacerbation can be life threatening.
Chronic otitis media
A recurring history of middle ear infections, eventually leading to damage to the eardrum or other structures within the ear. It is typically caused by blockage of the drainage system of the ear.
Chronic pain disorder
Pain lasting longer than 6 months that can no longer be explained by a physical cause. Many patients with CPD had an initial cause of pain (e.g. a broken arm) which healed, yet the pain failed to resolve.
Chronic pancreatitis
Inflammation of the pancreas, an organ needed for digestion and blood glucose control, that persists and worsens over time, eventually leading to scarring and permanent damage. There are a variety of causes, most commonly alcohol abuse, but also auto-immune disorders, cystic fibrosis, certain medications, etc.
Chronic rheumatic fever
Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory disease following infection by the bacteria Streptococcus pyogenes (the cause of "strep throat"), that occurs two to three weeks after infection. It is thought to be caused by an abnormal immune response. If symptoms are long-standing, it is said to be "chronic," and can lead to significant heart disease.
Chronic sinusitis
Inflammation of the lining of the sinuses, the air cavities within the bones of the face. Sinusitis is considered chronic if it lasts for 12 weeks or longer. Individuals with allergies or recurrent episodes of acute sinusitis may develop chronic sinusitis.
Chronic ulcer
An ulcer is a sore or break in an area of skin or membrane, causing damage to the area. If an ulcer lasts for a prolonged period of time it is referred to as "chronic." Examples include stomach ulcers, bedsores, and diabetic ulcers.
Cirrhosis
The scarring of the liver that is a long-term consequence of advanced liver disease, such as hepatitis or alcoholic liver disease. As cirrhosis worsens, the liver can no longer perform its vital functions, leading to symptoms.
Coagulation (bleeding) disorder
A condition in which some of the steps involved in blood clotting are defective, leading to frequent or easy bleeding. Though most of these conditions are genetic, other things, such as liver failure, kidney failure, and medications like warfarin or aspirin can cause bleeding disorders.
Cold sore
Occasional outbreaks of small blisters on the face or mouth caused by a treatable but not curable infection from herpes simplex virus. Causes include sharing cups or eating utensils, kissing, or oral sex. Up to 80% of adults in the United States are infected, though only a minority ever get symptoms.
Colonic polyp
A fleshy growth of tissue on the inner wall of the colon (i.e. lower intestine). Polyps can be harmless, develop into cancer, or already be cancerous. If left untreated, many polyps will develop into cancer.
Colorectal cancer
Malignancy in the large intestine and the rectum. Rarely, some genetic disorders such as familial adenomatous polyposis may predispose a person to getting these types of cancers. Regular screening with colonoscopy or fecal occult blood testing is recommended and can greatly reduce the risk of colorectal cancer.
Common cold
A viral infection of the nose and throat, most commonly leading to stuffy nose. Transmission is through droplets from other infected individuals and can be limited by proper cough/sneeze hygiene and hand washing.
Complex regional pain syndrome
A condition in which a body part can swell, redden and become extremely painful. Although the exact cause is unknown, it is believed to be due to malfunctioning nerves. Risk factors include a history of nerve injury, stroke, heart attack and smoking.
Concussion
A mild traumatic brain injury resulting in temporary loss of certain brain functions. Tissue damage is usually not apparent right away, but there is now evidence in athletes that damage may be accumulate over time.
Conduct disorder
In children and adolescents, a persistent pattern of behavior that shows a lack of consideration for other people or society. This is often a precursor to antisocial personality disorder in adults.
Conductive hearing loss
Loss of hearing due to inability to transfer sound vibrations through the ear to the nerve. Common causes include ear wax, ear infection, ruptured membrane in the ear, and damage to the small bones of the ear.
Congenital heart defect
An abnormality in the structure of the heart or the large blood vessels leading to the heart that is present at birth. Some cause no problems, some require surgery, and some are fatal.
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