Listing conditions

Displaying 51 - 100 of 801 in total

Appendicitis
Inflammation of the appendix. This disease is common in children and the elderly. The appendix should be removed with reasonable suspicion for appendicitis, as it may rupture otherwise. A ruptured appendix is life-threatening.
Arrhythmia
A problem in the rate or rhythm of a person's heartbeat. These are typically caused by problems with the electrical conduction system of the heart. They can be congenital or acquired, mild or life-threatening.
Arthritis of the hip
Inflammation of the hip joint leading to pain with movement. It is commonly caused by degeneration of the joint due to overuse (osteoarthritis), but can also be caused by autoimmune disorders or infections of the hip joint.
Ascending cholangitis
An infection of the bile duct, the tube that carries bile (a substance secreted by the liver that is required for digestion) from the liver to a series of tubes eventually leading to the intestine. It occurs from bacteria in the intestine traveling upwards through these tubes, often after there is already a blockage of the duct. It is a life-threatening medical emergency.
Asperger syndrome
A neurodevelopmental disorder that is part of autism spectrum disorder. It is marked by difficulties in social interaction and nonverbal communication, as well as compulsive or ritualized behaviors, often first noticed in childhood. Unlike autism, language and intelligence is typically preserved. The exact cause is unknown, but there is a genetic component.
Aspergillosis
An infection by the fungus Aspergillus, which is commonly found in most enviroments. Infection typically occurs in those with other diseases, such as tuberculosis infection or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but who otherwise have healthy immune systems. People with weakened immune systems, such as patients with organs transplants or HIV/AIDS, may get a more serious version of the disease affecting multiple organs.
Asthma
A chronic disease with recurring episodes of wheezing and difficulty breathing. Some patients have chronic cough as their only symptom. It is common among children, but also present in adults. Onset of the illness is usually before 50 years of age.
Astigmatism
A disorder of the eye in which vision is blurred due to an an inability of the eye to focus on objects. This is most often due to an irregular shape of components of the eyeball, such as the lens or the cornea.
Atelectasis
The collapse of all or part of a lung, leading an inability to bring oxygen into and carbon dioxide out of the blood. It is common and often temporary, though it can also be a marker of significant disease.
Athlete's foot
A common, contagious fungal infection of the skin of the foot. It is commonly spread in moist areas where people walk barefoot, such as locker rooms (hence the name, "athlete's foot").
Atonic bladder
A condition in which the muscle in the wall of the bladder (the structure that holds urine) does not contact, either due to degeneration of the muscle or lack of nervous control. This leads to urinary retention, the inability to empty the bladder and release urine.
Atrial fibrillation
An uncoordinated pacing of the heart's rhythm by multiple groups of cells in the atrium of the heart. Normally, there is only one group (sinus node) that paces. People with A-fib have an irregular heart rhythm and are may need blood thinners.
Atrial flutter
An abnormal, rapid heartbeat originating in the upper chambers of the heart that has a characteristic appearance on EKG. It typically results from damage to the heart or from medications, though sometimes an exact cause cannot be found. It requires treatment to prevent stroke and other complications.
Atrophic skin condition
Any condition in which the skin begins to waste away, leading to thin skin that can easily bruise, tear, or develop ulcers. A common cause is high blood levels of corticosteroids, either because of an illness or overuse of steroid medications.
Atrophic vaginitis
An inflammation of the vagina due to thinning of the tissues and decreased lubrication. This typically occurs due to lower levels of the hormone estrogen, for instance after menopause. It can lead to soreness, itching, and painful intercourse. It is treated with estrogen creams and lubrication.
Atrophy of the corpus cavernosum
The complete or partial wasting away of the corpus cavernosum, the spongy tissue in the penis that fills with blood during an erection.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
A developmental disorder in children, characterized by impaired ability to focus on tasks, impulsivity, and having above-average energy. It typically begins before age 7, but diagnosis may be delayed and is at times not made until adulthood.
Autism
A spectrum of brain development disorders leading to problems with social interaction and verbal or non-verbal communication, as well as repetitive behaviors. While it does run in families, the exact causes are unknown.
Autonomic nervous system disorder
Any problem relating to the autonomic nervous system, the system which controls many bodily functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and sweating. Disorders include postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, inappropriate sinus tachycardia, vasovagal syncope, orthostatic hypotension, autonomic instability, and consequences of disorders such as diabetes and Guillain-Barré syndrome.
Avascular necrosis
A disease marked by cellular death of components of a bone due to disruption of their blood supply. Risk factors include chemotherapy, alcoholism, steroid use, direct injury, vascular diseases, and auto-immune disease. Often the cause is not known. If not treated, it may lead to long-term pain and arthritis.
Balanitis
Inflammation of the glans penis (i.e. the bulbous tip or "head" of the penis). There are many causes, including chemical irritation, physical injury, infection, etc.
Behcet disease
A rare disease leading to ulcers in a variety of locations and vision problems. The exact cause is unknown, though it involves immune attack of blood vessels.
Bell palsy
A condition causing a sudden weakness in the facial muscles on one side. This can lead to a one-sided droop or crooked smile. It is thought to be caused by swelling of the nerve controlling the facial muscles during a viral infection. Most people have a complete recovery within months.
Benign kidney cyst
A non-cancerous, round, thin-walled, fluid-filled pocket in the kidney. These usually do not cause any harm. The exact cause is not known, though by age 50 nearly half of people have at least one. They are often monitored to see if they cause any problems.
Benign paroxysmal positional vertical (BPPV)
A umbrella term for non-cancerous skin growths such as skin tags, seborrheic keratosis, pilar cysts, lipoma, etc.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)
An increase in the size of the prostate. The prostate surrounds the tube taking urine out of the body in men at a point just below the bladder. An enlarged prostate can make it difficult to initiate a stream and empty the bladder completely when urinating.
Benign vaginal discharge (leukorrhea)
A non-dangerous release of thick, white or yellow fluid from the vagina. This can occur normally with hormonal changes during a woman's menstrual cycle or during pregnancy. If the fluid has a darker color or foul odor, it may be due to an infection.
Bipolar disorder
A mental illness in which the patient can lapse into periods of depression or mania. During periods of mania, patients often are full of energy, will spend enormous sums of money, are hyper-sexual or hyper-religious, and are prone to substance abuse.
Birth trauma
Any damage to the tissues of a newly born child due to forces applied on it during the birthing process. Potential areas of injury include the brain and the nerves of the shoulder. Causes include the baby being in the wrong position during birth or a small pelvis in the mother. This is rare in developed countries due to c-section surgeries.
Bladder cancer
A malignant transformation of the inner-most layer of cells in the urinary bladder, the organ that holds urine. Diagnosis is typically made after a urologist performs a biopsy using a small camera inserted into the urethra.
Bladder disorder
Any abnormality in the functioning of the bladder (the organ that holds urine). This includes obstruction, infection, cancers, incontinence, and urine reflux disorders.
Bladder obstruction
A blockage of urinary flow at the base of the bladder (the organ that stores urine), preventing flow into the urethra (the tube through which urine leaves the body). It is most commonly caused by enlarged prostate, bladder stones, tumors, and scarring of the urethra.
Blastomycosis
An infection from inhaling Blastomyces dermatitidis particles, a fungus that is found in soil. Common in the central and southeastern United States. It most often presents as a slowly progressing pneumonia.
Blepharitis
An inflammation of the eyelid. This condition is typically long standing, but can be short term as well. The cause can be infectious or non-infectious. Treatment usually involves eyelid hygeine.
Blepharospasm
An abnormal twitch of the eyelid, leading to increased blinking and involuntary closure of the eyelid. It may be secondary to pain or certain diseases, or may occur without any known cause. In the latter case, it is typically worsened by fatigue, stress, or irritants, and tends to go away on its own. Sometimes it becomes longstanding and may require treatment if bothersome.
Bone cancer
A malignant transformation of the tissues of the bones. Most tumors form in the bones around the knee. There are a variety of types of bone cancers, each with a different prognosis and treatment.
Bone disorder
Any problem relating to the bones, including abnormal growth, abnormal breakdown, inflammation or infection of the bones, or broken bones.
Bone spur of the calcaneous
A small bony projection formed on the heel bone. This is generally caused by constant stress (due to walking), leading to calcium deposits on the bottom of the heel bone. Though typically not harmful, they can be painful.
Brachial neuritis
Inflammation of a network of nerves in the shoulder and arm. Also known as Parsonage-Turner syndrome, the cause of this illness is unknown and it can lead to muscle weakness and paralysis in the arm. However, most cases get better within 1-2 years.
Brain cancer
A malignant transformation of the tissues of the brain. These cancers arise from the cells that nourish and support the nerve cells of the brain, but not from the actual nerves in the brain.
Breast cancer
A malignant transformation of the tissues of the breast. Cancer can arise from the ducts, glands, or other tissues within the breast. Signs include breast lumps, skin dimpling, and discharge from the nipple. Though less common, men are also afflicted.
Breast cyst
Non-dangerous fluid filled sacs that develop in the breast. They can be felt as round bumps with distinct edges that feel like grapes. They are caused by blockage and then dilation of milk ducts and do not require treatment unless painful.
Breast infection (mastitis)
An inflammation of breast tissue, typically due to a bacterial infection. This most commonly occurs during breast feeding, due to milk excess or blocked milk ducts. It can also occur due to an infection following nipple piercing or from a variety of other non-infectious causes.
Broken tooth
A chip or full break of one of the teeth. The tooth should not be brushed, and there is a high risk of infection if a dentist is not seen quickly. The broken fragment should typically be stored in saliva or milk until a dentist is seen. The emergency department cannot treat this condition.
Bronchiectasis
The destruction or widening of the bronchi (the large airways branching off of the windpipe and carrying air to and from the lungs). It is often caused by long-standing inflammation or infection, such as having inhaled a foreign object, or genetic conditions such as cystic fibrosis. Without treatment this can lead to difficulty breathing.
Bruise
After impact to a part of the body, tiny blood vessels may tear leading to bleeding in the tissues under the skin. Bruises typically appear blue or purple in color and the area may be swollen or tender.
Bunion
A bony bump at the joint connecting the big toe to the foot. It is caused when the big toe begins bending outwards, toward the other toes. The exact cause is unknown, with hypotheses regarding genetic causes or the use of tight fitting shoes.
Burn
An injury to the skin or flesh caused by damage from heat, electricity, chemicals, friction, or radiation. Severity can range from first degree (top of the skin only) to fourth degree (affecting flesh under the skin).
Bursitis
Inflammation of one of the bursae, the sacs of synovial fluid associated with a joint. Normally, bursae provide for frictionless gliding of tendons, but when inflammed (bursitis), significant friction leads to discomfort with movement.
Callus
A non-dangerous toughened area of skin that has thickened in response to repeated stress (e.g. friction, pressure, etc.). They are common on feet due to walking.
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