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West Nile virus

Also known as West Nile Fever

West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic arbovirus belonging to the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. This flavivirus is found in temperate and tropical regions of the world. It was first identified in the West Nile subregion in the East African nation of Uganda in 1937. Prior to the mid-1990s, WNV disease occurred only sporadically and was considered a minor risk for humans, until an outbreak in Algeria in 1994, with cases of WNV-caused encephalitis, and the first large outbreak in Romania in 1996, with a high number of cases with neuroinvasive disease. WNV has now spread globally, with the first case in the Western Hemisphere being identified in New York City in 1999; over the next 5 years, the virus spread across the continental United States, north into Canada, and southward into the Caribbean Islands and Latin America. WNV also spread to Europe, beyond the Mediterranean Basin . WNV is now considered to be an endemic pathogen in Africa, Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Europe and in the United States, which in 2012 has experienced one of its worst epidemics. In 2012, WNV killed 286 people in the United States, with the state of Texas being hard hit by this virus, making the year the deadliest on record for the United States.

Source: Wikipedia

What are the symptoms?

Within all the people who go to their doctor with west nile virus, 91% report having preoccupation with sex, 91% report having wrist cramps or spasms, and 91% report having joint cramps or spasms. The symptoms that are highly suggestive of west nile virus are pain in eye, shoulder cramps or spasms, facial pain, ankle pain, wrist pain, pain during pregnancy, excessive anger, joint stiffness or tightness, pain or soreness of breast, knee lump or mass, fatigue, and excessive urination at night, although you may still have west nile virus without those symptoms.


What might my doctor prescribe?

Common Tests and Procedures

Patients with west nile virus often receive corneal transplant, transurethral resection of prostate (turp), coronary thrombolysis, control of epistaxis, ct scan abdomen, procedures on spleen, bone marrow transplant and removal of ectopic pregnancy .

Common Medications

The most commonly prescribed drugs for patients with west nile virus include chlorpheniramine / phenindamine / phenylpropanolamine, air, mecamylamine, troleandomycin, indium oxyquinoline in-111 (indium in-111 oxyquinoline), pipecuronium (arduan), grepafloxacin (raxar), rabbit anti-human t-lymphocyte globulin (thymoglobulin), iopanoic acid, conjugated estrogens topical, malathion topical, gemtuzumab (mylotarg) and norelgestromin (ortho evra) .

Who is at risk?

Groups of people at highest risk for west nile virus include race/ethnicity = other, age 30-44 years, race/ethnicity = hispanic, age 75+ years, age 60-74 years, age 5-14 years, age 1-4 years, race/ethnicity = black, age 15-29 years, age 45-59 years and age < 1 years.

Age

< 1 years
15.5x
1-4 years
8.1x
5-14 years
5.7x
15-29 years
2.6x
30-44 years
2.7x
45-59 years
2.4x
60-74 years
3.5x
75+ years
5.3x

Sex

Male
1.2x
Female
0.9x

Race/Ethnicity

Black
2.6x
Hispanic
3.4x
White
0.8x
Other
9.4x
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