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Temporomandibular joint disorder

Also known as Temporomandibular Joint Syndrome, Jaw Snapping, and Costen Syndrome

Temporomandibular joint dysfunction (sometimes abbreviated to TMD and also termed temporomandibular joint dysfunction syndrome, temporomandibular disorder or many other names), is an umbrella term covering pain and dysfunction of the muscles of mastication (the muscles that move the jaw) and the temporomandibular joints (the joints which connect the mandible to the skull). The most important feature is pain, followed by restricted mandibular movement, which can cause difficulty eating or speaking, and noises from the temporomandibular joints (TMJ) during jaw movement. Although TMD is not life threatening, it can detriment quality of life, because the symptoms can become chronic and difficult to manage. TMD is thought to be very common. About 20-30% of the adult population are affected to some degree. Usually people affected by TMD are between 20 and 40 years of age, and it is more common in females than males. TMD is the second most frequent cause of orofacial pain after dental pain (e.g. toothache).

Source: Wikipedia

What are the symptoms?

Within all the people who go to their doctor with temporomandibular joint disorder, 84% report having facial pain, 81% report having ear pain, and 54% report having headache. The symptoms that are highly suggestive of temporomandibular joint disorder are facial pain, ear pain, ringing in ear, and jaw pain, although you may still have temporomandibular joint disorder without those symptoms.


What might my doctor prescribe?

Common Tests and Procedures

Patients with temporomandibular joint disorder often receive other diagnostic procedures (interview; evaluation; consultation), ophthalmologic and otologic diagnosis and treatment, central venous cannula insertion, diagnostic procedures on nose; mouth and pharynx and other physical therapy and rehabilitation .

Common Medications

The most commonly prescribed drugs for patients with temporomandibular joint disorder include sumatriptan (imitrex), fexofenadine / pseudoephedrine, etodolac, nabumetone, ketamine, acetaminophen / aspirin / caffeine, carbamide peroxide otic, chlorhexidine topical, iodoquinol, bifidobacterium infantis (align), lovastatin / niacin, azelastine ophthalmic and hydrochlorothiazide / telmisartan .

Who is at risk?

Groups of people at highest risk for temporomandibular joint disorder include age 30-44 years. On the other hand, age 1-4 years almost never get temporomandibular joint disorder.

Age

< 1 years
0.4x
1-4 years
0.0x
5-14 years
0.4x
15-29 years
1.5x
30-44 years
1.5x
45-59 years
1.1x
60-74 years
0.7x
75+ years
0.6x

Sex

Male
0.6x
Female
1.3x

Race/Ethnicity

Black
0.5x
Hispanic
0.9x
White
1.2x
Other
0.7x
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