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Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)

Also known as Stein Leventhal Syndrome and Ovarian Hyperthecosis

A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.

Source: MeSH

What are the symptoms?

Within all the people who go to their doctor with polycystic ovarian syndrome (pcos), 47% report having infertility, 34% report having unpredictable menstruation, and 27% report having weight gain. The symptoms that are highly suggestive of polycystic ovarian syndrome (pcos) are infertility, unpredictable menstruation, absence of menstruation, heavy menstrual flow, intermenstrual bleeding, long menstrual periods, painful menstruation, and hot flashes, although you may still have polycystic ovarian syndrome (pcos) without those symptoms.


What might my doctor prescribe?

Common Tests and Procedures

Patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (pcos) often receive hematologic tests, pelvis exam, ultrasonography, examination of breast, lipid panel, standard pregnancy test, hemoglobin a1c measurement and microscopic examination (bacterial smear; culture; toxicology) .

Common Medications

The most commonly prescribed drugs for patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (pcos) include metformin, medroxyprogesterone, clomiphene (clomid), drospirenone / ethinyl estradiol, spironolactone, estradiol, letrozole (femara), leuprolide (lupron), ortho cyclen, progesterone, modicon, human chorionic gonadotropin (hcg) and ethinyl estradiol / norgestrel .

Metformin
$9
(28 days)
Medroxyprogesterone
$11
(28 days)
Clomiphene (Clomid)

Spironolactone
$11
(28 days)
Estradiol
$29
(28 days)
Letrozole (Femara)
$394
(28 days)
Leuprolide (Lupron)
$961
(28 days)
Ortho Cyclen
$26
(28 days)
Progesterone
$56
(28 days)
Modicon
$38
(28 days)
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (Hcg)

Who is at risk?

Groups of people at highest risk for polycystic ovarian syndrome (pcos) include age 30-44 years, sex == female and age 15-29 years. On the other hand, age 75+ years, sex == male, age 60-74 years, age 1-4 years, and age < 1 years almost never get polycystic ovarian syndrome (pcos).

Age

< 1 years
0.0x
1-4 years
0.0x
5-14 years
0.5x
15-29 years
2.8x
30-44 years
2.1x
45-59 years
0.2x
60-74 years
0.0x
75+ years
0.0x

Sex

Male
0.0x
Female
1.7x

Race/Ethnicity

Black
0.6x
Hispanic
0.7x
White
1.2x
Other
1.3x
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