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Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis ("porous bones", from Greek: οστούν/ostoun meaning "bone" and πόρος/poros meaning "pore") is a disease of bones that leads to an increased risk of fracture. In osteoporosis, the bone mineral density (BMD) is reduced, bone microarchitecture deteriorates, and the amount and variety of proteins in bone are altered. Osteoporosis is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a bone mineral density of 2.5 standard deviations or more below the mean peak bone mass (average of young, healthy adults) as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; the term "established osteoporosis" includes the presence of a fragility fracture. The disease may be classified as primary type 1, primary type 2, or secondary.

Source: Wikipedia

What are the symptoms?

Within all the people who go to their doctor with osteoporosis, 36% report having back pain, 20% report having hip pain, and 15% report having joint pain. The symptoms that are highly suggestive of osteoporosis are low back stiffness or tightness and early or late onset of menopause, although you may still have osteoporosis without those symptoms.


What might my doctor prescribe?

Common Tests and Procedures

Patients with osteoporosis often receive hematologic tests, lipid panel, complete physical skin exam performed (ml), bone density scan, examination of breast, mammography, pelvis exam and hemoglobin a1c measurement .

Common Medications

The most commonly prescribed drugs for patients with osteoporosis include alendronate, ergocalciferol, risedronate (actonel), ibandronate (boniva), calcium carbonate, zoledronic acid (reclast), methotrexate, raloxifene (evista), calcitonin, calcium citrate, calcium-vitamin d, teriparatide (forteo) and methimazole .

Who is at risk?

Groups of people at highest risk for osteoporosis include age 75+ years, age 60-74 years and sex == female. On the other hand, age 5-14 years, age 1-4 years, age 15-29 years, and age < 1 years almost never get osteoporosis.

Age

< 1 years
0.0x
1-4 years
0.0x
5-14 years
0.0x
15-29 years
0.0x
30-44 years
0.2x
45-59 years
0.9x
60-74 years
2.6x
75+ years
4.2x

Sex

Male
0.2x
Female
1.6x

Race/Ethnicity

Black
0.6x
Hispanic
0.8x
White
1.2x
Other
1.3x
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