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Multiple sclerosis

Also known as MS, Disseminated Sclerosis, and Insular Sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS), also known as disseminated sclerosis or encephalomyelitis disseminata, is a inflammatory disease in which myelin sheaths around axons of the brain and spinal cord are damaged, leading to loss of myelin and scarring. The cause is not clear, but the underlying mechanism is thought to be either destruction by the immune system or failure of the myelin-producing cells. These changes affect the ability of nerve cells to communicate resulting in a wide range of signs and symptoms. It is more common in women and the onset typically occurs in young adults.

Source: Wikipedia

What are the symptoms?

Within all the people who go to their doctor with multiple sclerosis, 43% report having fatigue, 42% report having loss of sensation, and 31% report having headache. The symptoms that are highly suggestive of multiple sclerosis are leg weakness and leg stiffness or tightness, although you may still have multiple sclerosis without those symptoms.


What might my doctor prescribe?

Common Tests and Procedures

Patients with multiple sclerosis often receive magnetic resonance imaging, physical therapy exercises, other diagnostic procedures (interview; evaluation; consultation), referral to home health care service, other therapeutic procedures, occupational therapy assessment, debridement of wound; infection or burn and diagnostic spinal tap .

Common Medications

The most commonly prescribed drugs for patients with multiple sclerosis include interferon beta-1a (avonex), glatiramer (copaxone), baclofen, modafinil (provigil), oxybutynin, tizanidine, natalizumab (tysabri), tolterodine (detrol), amantadine, solifenacin (vesicare), azathioprine, cyclophosphamide and armodafinil (nuvigil) .

Interferon Beta-1A (Avonex)
$2711
(28 days)
Glatiramer (Copaxone)
$2857
(28 days)
Baclofen
$18
(28 days)
Modafinil (Provigil)
$596
(28 days)
Oxybutynin
$37
(28 days)
Tizanidine
$25
(28 days)
Natalizumab (Tysabri)
$3077
(28 days)
Tolterodine (Detrol)
$121
(28 days)
Amantadine
$28
(28 days)
Solifenacin (Vesicare)
$129
(28 days)
Azathioprine
$28
(28 days)
Cyclophosphamide
$127
(28 days)
Armodafinil (Nuvigil)
$280
(28 days)

Who is at risk?

Groups of people at highest risk for multiple sclerosis include age 30-44 years age 45-59 years. On the other hand, age 1-4 years and age < 1 years almost never get multiple sclerosis.

Age

< 1 years
0.0x
1-4 years
0.0x
5-14 years
0.1x
15-29 years
0.5x
30-44 years
1.7x
45-59 years
2.1x
60-74 years
0.9x
75+ years
0.2x

Sex

Male
0.6x
Female
1.3x

Race/Ethnicity

Black
0.8x
Hispanic
0.7x
White
1.2x
Other
0.4x
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