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Kidney failure

Also known as Renal Failure

Renal failure (also kidney failure or renal insufficiency) is a medical condition in which the kidneys fail to adequately filter waste products from the blood. The two main forms are acute kidney injury, which is often reversible with adequate treatment, and chronic kidney disease, which is often not reversible. In both cases, there is usually an underlying cause.

Source: Wikipedia

What are the symptoms?

Within all the people who go to their doctor with kidney failure, 43% report having shortness of breath, 26% report having nausea, and 25% report having weakness. The symptoms that are highly suggestive of kidney failure are symptoms of the kidneys, although you may still have kidney failure without those symptoms.


What might my doctor prescribe?

Common Tests and Procedures

Patients with kidney failure often receive hematologic tests, complete blood count, glucose measurement, electrolytes panel, electrocardiogram, plain x-ray, kidney function tests and urinalysis .

Common Medications

The most commonly prescribed drugs for patients with kidney failure include sevelamer (renvela), epoetin alfa (procrit), mycophenolate mofetil (cellcept), tacrolimus (prograf), hydralazine, labetalol, sodium polystyrene sulfonate (kayexalate), calcium acetate, sodium bicarbonate, calcitriol, darbepoetin alfa (aranesp), vancomycin and cinacalcet (sensipar) .

Sevelamer (Renvela)
$453
(28 days)
Epoetin Alfa (Procrit)
$804
(21 days)
Mycophenolate Mofetil (Cellcept)
$263
(28 days)
Tacrolimus (Prograf)
$376
(28 days)
Hydralazine
$24
(28 days)
Labetalol
$19
(28 days)
Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate (Kayexalate)
$57
(14 days)
Calcium Acetate
$103
(28 days)
Sodium Bicarbonate
$18
(21 days)
Calcitriol
$37
(28 days)
Darbepoetin Alfa (Aranesp)
$1004
(21 days)
Vancomycin
$303
(7 days)
Cinacalcet (Sensipar)
$598
(28 days)

Who is at risk?

Groups of people at highest risk for kidney failure include race/ethnicity = other, age 75+ years, age 60-74 years and race/ethnicity = black. On the other hand, age 1-4 years almost never get kidney failure.

Age

< 1 years
0.1x
1-4 years
0.0x
5-14 years
0.2x
15-29 years
0.2x
30-44 years
0.7x
45-59 years
1.5x
60-74 years
2.1x
75+ years
2.1x

Sex

Male
1.3x
Female
0.8x

Race/Ethnicity

Black
1.6x
Hispanic
1.1x
White
0.7x
Other
1.6x
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