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Hyponatremia

Also known as Sodium Deficiency, Sodium Depletion, and Decreased Serum Sodium

Hyponatremia (American English) or hyponatraemia (British English) is an electrolyte disturbance in which the sodium ion concentration in the serum is lower than normal. Sodium is the dominant extracellular cation (positive ion) and cannot freely cross from the interstitial space through the cell membrane, into the cell. Its homeostasis (stability of concentration) inside the cell is vital to the normal function of any cell. Normal serum sodium levels are between 135 and 145 mEq/L. Hyponatremia is defined as a serum level of less than 135 mEq/L and is considered severe when the serum level is below 125 mEq/L.

Source: Wikipedia

What are the symptoms?

Within all the people who go to their doctor with hyponatremia, 55% report having weakness, 53% report having vomiting, and 48% report having nausea.


What might my doctor prescribe?

Common Tests and Procedures

Patients with hyponatremia often receive hematologic tests, complete blood count, radiographic imaging procedure, intravenous fluid replacement, electrolytes panel, glucose measurement, kidney function tests and urinalysis .

Common Medications

The most commonly prescribed drugs for patients with hyponatremia include sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate / sodium phosphate, monobasic, econazole topical, desmopressin, sodium polystyrene sulfonate (kayexalate), metipranolol ophthalmic, diphenoxylate (lomotil), amitriptyline / perphenazine, clavulanate / ticarcillin, dofetilide (tikosyn), tiagabine (gabitril), lipase and chlorpheniramine / phenylephrine / pyrilamine .

Who is at risk?

Groups of people at highest risk for hyponatremia include age 75+ years age 60-74 years. On the other hand, age 5-14 years almost never get hyponatremia.

Age

< 1 years
0.3x
1-4 years
0.1x
5-14 years
0.0x
15-29 years
0.2x
30-44 years
0.4x
45-59 years
1.2x
60-74 years
1.7x
75+ years
4.1x

Sex

Male
0.8x
Female
1.1x

Race/Ethnicity

Black
0.3x
Hispanic
0.5x
White
1.3x
Other
1.2x
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