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Hypernatremia

Also known as Excess Sodium in Blood

Hypernatremia or hypernatraemia (see American and British English spelling differences) is an electrolyte disturbance that is defined by an elevated sodium level in the blood. Hypernatremia is generally not caused by an excess of sodium, but rather by a relative deficit of free water in the body. For this reason, hypernatremia is often synonymous with the less precise term, dehydration.

Source: Wikipedia

What are the symptoms?

Within all the people who go to their doctor with hypernatremia, 64% report having weakness, 53% report having difficulty breathing, and 45% report having fluid retention. The symptoms that are highly suggestive of hypernatremia are weakness, fluid retention, and heavy menstrual flow, although you may still have hypernatremia without those symptoms.


What might my doctor prescribe?

Common Tests and Procedures

Patients with hypernatremia often receive hematologic tests, complete blood count, intravenous fluid replacement, radiographic imaging procedure, plain x-ray, glucose measurement, kidney function tests and electrolytes panel .

Common Medications

The most commonly prescribed drugs for patients with hypernatremia include insulin, sodium bicarbonate, enoxaparin (lovenox), oxygen, albumin human, usp (albutein), piperacillin (zosyn), insulin aspart-insulin aspart protamine, dopamine, sodium polystyrene sulfonate (kayexalate), zoledronic acid (reclast), phenobarbital, telmisartan (micardis) and epoetin alfa (procrit) .

Who is at risk?

Groups of people at highest risk for hypernatremia include age 75+ years, age 60-74 years, race/ethnicity = black and age < 1 years. On the other hand, age 1-4 years almost never get hypernatremia.

Age

< 1 years
1.6x
1-4 years
0.0x
5-14 years
0.6x
15-29 years
0.1x
30-44 years
0.3x
45-59 years
0.9x
60-74 years
1.9x
75+ years
4.0x

Sex

Male
1.0x
Female
1.0x

Race/Ethnicity

Black
1.8x
Hispanic
0.2x
White
0.9x
Other
1.0x
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