Also known as Hypervolemia and Excess Fluid Volume
Hypervolemia, or fluid overload, is the medical condition where there is too much fluid in the blood. The opposite condition is hypovolemia, which is too little fluid volume in the blood. Fluid volume excess in the intravascular compartment occurs due to an increase in total body sodium content and a consequent increase in extracellular body water. The mechanism usually stems from compromised regulatory mechanisms for sodium handling as seen in congestive heart failure (CHF), kidney failure, and liver failure. It may also be caused by excessive intake of sodium from foods, intravenous (IV) solutions and blood transfusions, medications, or diagnostic contrast dyes.Source: Wikipedia
Within all the people who go to their doctor with fluid overload, 84% report having shortness of breath, 58% report having peripheral edema, and 47% report having sharp abdominal pain. The symptoms that are highly suggestive of fluid overload are shortness of breath, peripheral edema, fluid retention, and leg swelling, although you may still have fluid overload without those symptoms.
Patients with fluid overload often receive hematologic tests, complete blood count, radiographic imaging procedure, electrocardiogram, plain x-ray, glucose measurement, kidney function tests and electrolytes panel .
The most commonly prescribed drugs for patients with fluid overload include furosemide, clonidine, sodium bicarbonate, heparin, sodium polystyrene sulfonate (kayexalate), tacrolimus (prograf), vancomycin, minoxidil (rogaine), torsemide, epoetin alfa (procrit), mycophenolate mofetil (cellcept), hydralazine / isosorbide dinitrate and chlorothiazide .
|Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate (Kayexalate)||$57|
|Epoetin Alfa (Procrit)||$804|
|Mycophenolate Mofetil (Cellcept)||$263|
Groups of people at highest risk for fluid overload include race/ethnicity = hispanic, age 60-74 years and age 45-59 years. On the other hand, age 5-14 years and age < 1 years almost never get fluid overload.