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Epidural hemorrhage

Epidural or extradural hematoma (haematoma) is a type of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in which a buildup of blood occurs between the dura mater (the tough outer membrane of the central nervous system) and the skull. The dura mater also covers the spine, so epidural bleeds may also occur in the spinal column. Often due to trauma, the condition is potentially deadly because the buildup of blood may increase pressure in the intracranial space, compress delicate brain tissue, and cause brain shift. The condition is present in one to three percent of head injuries. Between 15 and 20% of epidural hematomas are fatal.

Source: Wikipedia

What are the symptoms?

Within all the people who go to their doctor with epidural hemorrhage, 63% report having depressive or psychotic symptoms, 63% report having back pain, and 45% report having diminished hearing. The symptoms that are highly suggestive of epidural hemorrhage are diminished hearing, elbow weakness, excessive growth, low back weakness, feeling hot and cold, wrist weakness, and emotional symptoms, although you may still have epidural hemorrhage without those symptoms.


What might my doctor prescribe?

Common Tests and Procedures

Patients with epidural hemorrhage often receive radiographic imaging procedure, intravenous fluid replacement, x-ray computed tomography, plain x-ray, cat scan of head, complete blood count, cardiac monitoring and kidney function tests .

Common Medications

The most commonly prescribed drugs for patients with epidural hemorrhage include cefazolin, phenytoin (dilantin), factor ix, fosphenytoin, eletriptan (relpax), atropine (uaa), tizanidine, dexamethasone, levetiracetam (keppra), aripiprazole (abilify), topiramate (topamax), midazolam (versed) and divalproex sodium (depakote) .

Who is at risk?

Groups of people at highest risk for epidural hemorrhage include age 75+ years, sex == male and age 15-29 years.

Age

< 1 years
0.1x
1-4 years
1.2x
5-14 years
0.8x
15-29 years
1.5x
30-44 years
1.2x
45-59 years
0.4x
60-74 years
1.0x
75+ years
1.5x

Sex

Male
1.7x
Female
0.5x

Race/Ethnicity

Black
1.1x
Hispanic
1.5x
White
0.8x
Other
1.4x
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