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Emphysema

Also known as Lung Emphysema and Pulmonary Emphysema

Emphysema is a long-term lung disease. In people with emphysema, the tissues necessary to support the shape and function of the lungs are destroyed. It is included in a group of diseases called chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD. Emphysema is called an obstructive lung disease because the destruction of lung tissue around smaller sacs, called alveoli, makes these air sacs unable to hold their functional shape upon exhalation. Emphysema is most often caused by tobacco smoking and long-term exposure to air pollution.

Source: Wikipedia

What are the symptoms?

Within all the people who go to their doctor with emphysema, 89% report having sharp chest pain, 69% report having chest tightness, and 69% report having shortness of breath. The symptoms that are highly suggestive of emphysema are sharp chest pain, chest tightness, cross-eyed, itchy eyelid, excessive growth, emotional symptoms, and elbow cramps or spasms, although you may still have emphysema without those symptoms.


What might my doctor prescribe?

Common Tests and Procedures

Patients with emphysema often receive radiographic imaging procedure, plain x-ray, complete blood count, hematologic tests, x-ray computed tomography, kidney function tests, intravenous fluid replacement and electrocardiogram .

Common Medications

The most commonly prescribed drugs for patients with emphysema include sodium chloride (deep sea), diphenhydramine (benadryl), hydromorphone (dilaudid), sucralfate (carafate), nicotine, zosyn, epinephrine, budesonide, adderall, losartan, combivent, penicillin and paroxetine (paxil) .

Sodium Chloride (Deep Sea)
$27
(7 days)
Diphenhydramine (Benadryl)
$5
(21 days)
Hydromorphone (Dilaudid)
$50
(21 days)
Sucralfate (Carafate)
$49
(28 days)
Nicotine
$179
(21 days)
Zosyn
$520
(7 days)
Epinephrine
$76
(7 days)
Budesonide
$281
(28 days)
Adderall

Losartan
$51
(28 days)
Combivent
$164
(28 days)
Penicillin

Paroxetine (Paxil)
$19
(28 days)

Who is at risk?

Groups of people at highest risk for emphysema include race/ethnicity = other, sex == male, age 5-14 years, age 15-29 years and age < 1 years. On the other hand, age 60-74 years, race/ethnicity = black, and age 45-59 years almost never get emphysema.

Age

< 1 years
2.9x
1-4 years
0.1x
5-14 years
2.1x
15-29 years
2.9x
30-44 years
0.5x
45-59 years
0.0x
60-74 years
0.0x
75+ years
1.0x

Sex

Male
1.9x
Female
0.3x

Race/Ethnicity

Black
0.0x
Hispanic
1.3x
White
1.2x
Other
1.8x
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