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Dry eye of unknown cause

Also known as Dry Eye Syndrome

Keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), also called keratitis sicca, xerophthalmia or dry eye syndrome (DES) is an eye disease caused by eye dryness, which, in turn, is caused by either decreased tear production or increased tear film evaporation. It is found in humans and some animals. The phrase "keratoconjunctivitis sicca" is Latin, and its translation is "dry of the cornea and conjunctiva".

Source: Wikipedia

What are the symptoms?

Within all the people who go to their doctor with dry eye of unknown cause, 72% report having symptoms of eye, 69% report having diminished vision, and 50% report having pain in eye. The symptoms that are highly suggestive of dry eye of unknown cause are symptoms of eye, diminished vision, pain in eye, lacrimation, itchiness of eye, eye redness, eye burns or stings, foreign body sensation in eye, spots or clouds in vision, white discharge from eye, and abnormal movement of eyelid, although you may still have dry eye of unknown cause without those symptoms.


What might my doctor prescribe?

Common Tests and Procedures

Patients with dry eye of unknown cause often receive ophthalmic examination and evaluation, other therapeutic procedures on eyelids; conjunctiva; cornea, ophthalmologic and otologic diagnosis and treatment, diagnostic procedures on eye, other extraocular muscle and orbit therapeutic procedures, other intraocular therapeutic procedures, lens and cataract procedures and physical therapy exercises; manipulation; and other procedures .

Common Medications

The most commonly prescribed drugs for patients with dry eye of unknown cause include cyclosporine ophthalmic, latanoprost, tropicamide ophthalmic, loteprednol ophthalmic, phenylephrine (duramax), travoprost (travatan), ocular lubricant, prednisolone ophthalmic, timolol, fluorometholone ophthalmic, brimonidine-timolol ophthalmic, brimonidine ophthalmic and tetrahydrozoline ophthalmic .

Who is at risk?

Groups of people at highest risk for dry eye of unknown cause include age 75+ years age 60-74 years.

Age

< 1 years
0.1x
1-4 years
0.1x
5-14 years
0.1x
15-29 years
0.3x
30-44 years
0.5x
45-59 years
1.2x
60-74 years
2.2x
75+ years
3.0x

Sex

Male
0.6x
Female
1.3x

Race/Ethnicity

Black
0.8x
Hispanic
1.0x
White
1.0x
Other
1.3x
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