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Drug reaction

Also known as Medication Side Effect and Adverse Drug Reaction

An adverse drug reaction (abbreviated ADR) is an expression that describes harm associated with the use of given medications at a normal dosage during normal use. ADRs may occur following a single dose or prolonged administration of a drug or result from the combination of two or more drugs. The meaning of this expression differs from the meaning of "side effect", as this last expression might also imply that the effects can be beneficial. The study of ADRs is the concern of the field known as pharmacovigilance. An adverse drug event (abbreviated ADE) refers to any injury caused by the drug (at normal dosage and/or due to overdose) and any harm associated with the use of the drug (e.g. discontinuation of drug therapy). ADRs are a special type of ADEs.

Source: Wikipedia

What are the symptoms?

Within all the people who go to their doctor with drug reaction, 68% report having skin rash, 52% report having allergic reaction, and 40% report having itching of skin. The symptoms that are highly suggestive of drug reaction are allergic reaction, itching of skin, lip swelling, and throat swelling, although you may still have drug reaction without those symptoms.


What might my doctor prescribe?

Common Tests and Procedures

Patients with drug reaction often receive intravenous fluid replacement, electrolytes panel, kidney function tests, electrocardiogram, cardiac enzymes measurement, cardiac monitoring, toxicology screen and other or therapeutic nervous system procedures .

Common Medications

The most commonly prescribed drugs for patients with drug reaction include diphenhydramine (benadryl), methylprednisolone (medrol), famotidine, epinephrine, cimetidine, levocetirizine (xyzal), bicalutamide (casodex), entacapone (comtan), propylthiouracil, calamine topical, naproxen / sumatriptan, isoetharine and chlorpheniramine-epinephrine .

Who is at risk?

Groups of people at highest risk for drug reaction include .

Age

< 1 years
0.3x
1-4 years
0.8x
5-14 years
0.9x
15-29 years
0.9x
30-44 years
1.1x
45-59 years
1.0x
60-74 years
1.3x
75+ years
1.0x

Sex

Male
0.9x
Female
1.1x

Race/Ethnicity

Black
0.9x
Hispanic
0.9x
White
1.1x
Other
0.7x
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