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Congenital heart defect

Also known as Cardiac Anomaly, Heart Anomaly, and Heart Malformation

A congenital heart defect (CHD) is a defect in the structure of the heart and great vessels which is present at birth. Many types of heart defects exist, most of which either obstruct blood flow in the heart or vessels near it, or cause blood to flow through the heart in an abnormal pattern. Other defects, such as long QT syndrome, affect the heart's rhythm. Heart defects are among the most common birth defects and are the leading cause of birth defect-related deaths. Approximately 9 people in 1000 are born with a congenital heart defect. Many defects don't need treatment, but some complex congenital heart defects require medication or surgery.

Source: Wikipedia

What are the symptoms?

Within all the people who go to their doctor with congenital heart defect, 26% report having sharp chest pain, 6% report having lymphedema, and 6% report having lack of growth. The symptoms that are highly suggestive of congenital heart defect are cross-eyed, although you may still have congenital heart defect without those symptoms.


What might my doctor prescribe?

Common Tests and Procedures

Patients with congenital heart defect often receive radiographic imaging procedure, electrocardiogram, ultrasonography, echocardiography, other diagnostic procedures (interview; evaluation; consultation), cardiac stress tests, other therapeutic procedures and diagnostic cardiac catheterization; coronary arteriography .

Common Medications

The most commonly prescribed drugs for patients with congenital heart defect include digoxin, captopril, palivizumab (synagis), chlorothiazide, treprostinil (remodulin), procainamide, ambrisentan (letairis), haemophilus b conjugate (prp-t) vaccine, bosentan (tracleer), entecavir (baraclude), antihemophilic factor (obsolete), pyrithione zinc topical and brompheniramine (e.n.t.) .

Who is at risk?

Groups of people at highest risk for congenital heart defect include race/ethnicity = other, age 5-14 years, age 1-4 years and age < 1 years.

Age

< 1 years
8.5x
1-4 years
3.4x
5-14 years
2.1x
15-29 years
0.6x
30-44 years
0.4x
45-59 years
0.3x
60-74 years
0.4x
75+ years
0.4x

Sex

Male
1.3x
Female
0.8x

Race/Ethnicity

Black
1.0x
Hispanic
1.2x
White
0.9x
Other
1.6x
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