Listing common conditions

Displaying 101 - 150 of 225 in total

Glaucoma
An increase in the pressure inside of the eyeball leading to damage to the nerve that brings visual signals to the brain. There are two forms: open-angle (90% of cases, painless, slowly progressing) and closed-angle (10% of cases, painful, a medical emergency).
Gout
A painful joint disorder in which uric acid deposits inside a joint. The big toe is most commonly affected. Onset is often overnight and the disease recurs every so often. While not life threatening, gout is intensely painful.
Gum disease
An illness affecting the soft tissues holding the teeth in place. Infected gums may recede, causing the teeth to become loose in their sockets and prone to falling out. Alternatively, the infection may spread to the jaw bone or form an abscess.
Head injury
An injury to the head caused by an impact or from rapidly going from high speeds to low speeds. Possible results from head injuries include a concussion, brain bleed, or broken skull.
Heart attack
A condition in which enough oxygen is not provided to the muscles of the heart, typically because of a blockage in the blood vessels that feed the heart. This is a medical emergency.
Heart failure
A condition in which the heart cannot pump enough blood to meet the body's demands. It can be caused by a heart attack or other damage to the heart muscles, long-standing high blood pressure, or abnormal heart valves.
Hemorrhoids
Enlarged veins in the anus. They are typically the result of increased pressure (e.g. straining, lifting weights) or poor blood drainage from the area (e.g. liver disease). When hemorrhoids burst, rectal bleeding can be significant.
Herniated disk
A condition in which the soft core of a disk in the spine pops out of its hard capsule. It tends to squeeze out the back of the disk, and can press on the spine or nerves leaving the spine, causing pain, numbness or weakness in the legs.
High blood pressure
Blood pressure being consistently above 139/89. Either the first number (systolic) or the second number (diastolic) may be high. This can cause the heart to work harder to pump blood, leading to heart disease.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV)
A blood-borne illness which affects and kills a group of white blood cells called CD4. Without these cells, patients are prone to opportunistic infections and cancer. When certain infections occurs or levels of CD4 cells are very low, the person is said to have AIDS. HIV can be effectively treated with medication long-term, but at this time cannot be cured.
Hypercholesterolemia
Also called "high cholesterol," this is when there is too much cholesterol, a waxy substance the body needs to build cells, in the blood. Cholesterol and fats eventually "stick" to blood vessels leading to heart disease.
Hyperlipidemia
This is when there are too many fatty substances in the blood. The fat eventually "sticks" to blood vessels leading to heart disease. "High cholesterol" is one form of hyperlipidemia.
Hypoglycemia
A low blood sugar level. The sugar glucose is the primary fuel for the brain, and without it the brain may begin to lose its function or eventually become damaged. It is commonly caused by diabetics taking too much insulin. Hypoglycemia may have symptoms similar to stroke (e.g. difficulty speaking). Both are a medical emergency.
Hypokalemia
An electrolyte imbalance of the blood in which the potassium level is too low. Potassium is important for the electrical coordination of nerve impulses and muscle contraction. Hypokalemia can lead to muscle weakness and heart rhythm abnormalities.
Hypothyroidism
A relative deficiency of thyroid hormone (T3). T3 is the major regulator of metabolism - slowing of the body's metabolism leads to lower body temperature, constipation, and may be life-threatening if severe.
Hypovolemia
Low blood volume. Common causes include bleeding, burns, excessive sweating, diarrhea, or vomiting. Significantly lowered blood volume can lead to a state known as "shock" in which blood pressure is very low and the tissues of the body are not getting enough oxygen from the blood. This can be life threatening.
Idiopathic excessive menstruation
Any increase in how often a woman has menstrual cycles (i.e. "the period") or how much flow she has during these cycles, for which there is no clear cause despite workup by a physician.
Idiopathic irregular menstrual cycle
A condition in which a woman's menstrual cycle (i.e. "the period") are not regular in timing, yet an exact cause cannot be found despite testing. Menstrual cycles usually occur consistently every 21 to 35 days.
Idiopathic painful menstruation
Pain during a woman's menstrual cycle (e.g. "the period") that is more than typical cramping and for which a cause cannot be determined despite workup by a physician.
Infectious gastroenteritis
Inflammation of the stomach and the small intestine due to bacteria, viruses or parasites. Vomiting and diarrhea are the hallmarks of this illness, It is commonly associated with painful cramping.
Inguinal hernia
An out-pouching of the abdominal cavity into the inguinal canal (a tube located in the groin). While some hernias can be a mere cosmetic nuisance, others can entrap a loop of bowel leading to a medical emergency. Evaluation by a physician is advisable.
Injury of the ankle
Any irritation or damage to the muscles, tendons, bones, or ligaments of the ankle. The injury may heal on its own quickly, require surgery, or be chronic.
Injury to the arm
Any damage done to the arm, either by impact from an external source or by overuse. Examples include broken bones, bruises, muscle tears, or inflammation of the tendons.
Injury to the leg
Any damage done to the leg, either by impact from an external source or by overuse. Examples include broken bones, bruises, muscle tears, or cuts.
Injury to the shoulder
Any damage done to the shoulder, either by impact from an external source or by overuse. Examples include broken bones, bruises, muscle tears, or inflammation of the tendons.
Insect bite
A local reaction of the skin to an arthropod's bite. While the bite itself may be itchy or irritating, some insects such as tics and mosquitoes can transmit disease. Please see a physician if you develop symptoms affecting the rest of the body.
Iron deficiency anemia
A condition in which the body cannot produce enough red blood cells because one of the main building blocks (iron) is not available. Possible causes include low iron intake in the diet or loss through bleeding.
Irritable bowel syndrome
Condition of the bowels that often presents with abdominal pain, diarrhea, and constipation. The cause is currently unknown, and it is a diagnosis of exclusion, meaning that other illness must be ruled out by tests before the diagnosis can be made.
Ischemic heart disease
The result of atherosclerosis (gradual plaque build up) of the blood vessels that feed the heart. The blood supply no longer meets the demand of the heart muscle, leading to dysfunction or tissue death. The spectrum ranges from angina (recurrent chest pain) to myocardial infarction (a heart attack).
Joint effusion
Fluid in the tissue around the joint. There are three causes of joint effusion: infection of the joint, inflammation (e.g. gout), or trauma.
Kidney disease due to longstanding hypertension
A gradual loss over years of the kidneys' ability to filter blood and produce urine. It is typically caused by persistently high blood pressures. High blood pressures damages kidneys by damaging the blood vessels that feed them.
Kidney failure
A significant reduction in the kidney's ability to make urine. It can generally be thought of in 3 categories: not enough blood reaches the kidney, the kidney is dysfunctional, or the urine can't drain from the kidney (termed: pre-renal, renal, post-renal).
Kidney stone
A precipitate of crystals from the urine. The stone can be small and pass unnoticed or large and get stuck in the ureter (the tube connecting the kidney to the bladder), causing significant pain.
Knee ligament or meniscus tear
Is usually the result of a significant blow to the knee. Patients often report a "popping" sensation or a clicking sound with movement. The knee often swells and may "lock". If the shin-bone was pushed backward, the popliteal artery may be damaged.
Leukemia
A cancer of the blood or bone marrow in which there is a large increase in the number of immature white blood cells. These can occur in adults and children and many types have excellent cure rates with treatment.
Lumbago
Also called "lower back pain," this can be caused by various problems relating to the muscles, joints, or bones in the lower back. Often no single cause can be identified.
Lung cancer
A malignant growth in the tissues of the lung. Smokers are at significant risk for the development of lung cancer.
Lymphoma
A cancer of the white blood cells, typically forming in the organs that produce or house white blood cells, such as the spleen, bone marrow, or lymph nodes. These cancers can occur in adults or children, and certain types are highly curable with radiation or chemotherapy.
Macular degeneration
A gradual loss of vision due to damage to the macula (the area of the eye responsible for sharpness of the image in the center of vision). It affects the center of vision, making it difficult to read and recognize faces. The peripheral vision is often unaffected.
Marijuana abuse
A condition in which someone continues to use marijuana despite it causing problems in the person's life (e.g. arrests, career or relationship problems, lack of productivity, health).
Menopause
By definition a lack of menstrual cycles (i.e. "the period") for 12 months in a row. This usually occurs during a woman's late 40's or early 50's.
Metabolic disorder
Any disorder of the chemical reaction pathways used by the body to convert food into energy. These are often genetic disorders (e.g. PKU) but can also be acquired (e.g. diabetes).
Metastatic cancer
Spread of cancer from its original site to other organs in the body. The liver, lung, brain, and bones are common sites of metastasis. Metastatic cancer often requires chemotherapy, as surgical excision is no longer feasible.
Migraine
A type of headache that lasts several hours to days and typically occurs many times throughout the lives of individuals who suffer from them. The pain is often severe, throbbing in nature, and worse on one side of the head. It is also typically accompanied by nausea and sensitivity to light or sound. The exact cause is unknown.
Mononeuritis
An inflammation of a single nerve outside of the brain or spinal cord. This can cause pain or weakness in a specific part of the body. If multiple nerves in different locations are involved, this is known as mononeuritis multiplex.
Multiple sclerosis
A disease of the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) marked by damage to the cells that surround nerves and help them function. There are several subtypes, most have symptoms that wax and wane, typically getting worse over time. The exact cause is not known.
Muscle spasm
A sudden, involuntary contraction of a single muscle. It is often very uncomfortable. Most muscle spasm are short-lived, but some may persist for days (e.g. torticollis). Isolated spams of the jaw may be an early sign of tetanus.
Myopia
The medical term for "nearsightedness". A patient has no difficulty reading a book, but is not able to read an advertisement on the other sight of the street. Glasses, contacts or laser correction are able to improve vision.
Neuralgia
Pain coming from irritation or damage to a nerve or group of nerves. It is often difficult to diagnose. Potential sources include pinched nerves or disease such as diabetes or multiple sclerosis.
Noninfectious gastroenteritis
Inflammation of the lining of the stomach and small intestine that is not caused by an infection. Causes include certain medications, toxins, foods in people who are intolerant, and certain diseases in which the person's own immune system attacks the body
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