Listing common conditions

Displaying 51 - 100 of 225 in total

Conductive hearing loss
Loss of hearing due to inability to transfer sound vibrations through the ear to the nerve. Common causes include ear wax, ear infection, ruptured membrane in the ear, and damage to the small bones of the ear.
Congenital heart defect
An abnormality in the structure of the heart or the large blood vessels leading to the heart that is present at birth. Some cause no problems, some require surgery, and some are fatal.
Conjunctivitis
Commonly known as "pink eye," this an inflammation of the thin outer coating of the eyeballs. It is most often caused by a viral infection and does not require treatment. It can also be caused by bacterial infections, chemical irritants, allergies, etc.
Contact dermatitis
A reaction of the immune system to certain substances on the surface of the skin. A familiar example is poison ivy. Contact dermatitis can also be due to soaps, detergents, make-up, jewelry, and other substances that contact the skin in people predisposed to get these reactions.
Corneal abrasion
A cut or scrape of the cornea (the see-through front layer of the eyeball). These are often caused by contact lenses or other direct injury to the eyeball. Treatment is typically with prescription eye drops.
Coronary atherosclerosis
Hardening of the blood vessels feeding the heart. Eventually, the vessels may become blocked leading to a heart attack. Causes include high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, and diabetes.
Croup
An inflammation of the voice box and the airway just below the vocal cords, often due to infection by these viruses: parainfluenza virus, RSV, or adenovirus. Children often have a 'barking' cough while adults tend to have hoarseness.
Cystitis
Cystitis is a urinary bladder (the organ that holds urine) inflammation that can result from bruising, bacterial or parasitic infection, and medications.
Decubitus ulcer
Also known as a bedsore, this is a sore or break in an area of skin that is under chronic amounts of high pressure. These typically form in the skin overlying bones that press against the bed or chair when laying down or sitting.
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
A blood clot in a large vein, more commonly in the leg than the arm. Causes include cancer, immobility, conditions leading to easy clotting, obesity, recent surgery, and congestive heart failure. A clot can dislodge and float to the lung, leading to pulmonary embolism.
Degenerative disc disease
A shrinking of the cushioning discs between the bones of the spine. Although a normal part of aging, disc degeneration may lead to bone pain or compression of nerves, leading to pain, numbness, or weakness.
Delirium
A syndrome of confusion and loss of awareness for location and time that typically comes on rapidly and goes up and down in intensity. This is common in the elderly and is often a reversible symptom of other problems such as infection, medications, and head injury.
Dental caries
An infection of the tooth that arises due to secretion of acid by the normal bacteria in the mouth, leading to breakdown of the outside part of the tooth. It is often the consequence of poor diet and poor oral hygiene, although it appears a genetic predisposition also influences the development of this disease.
Depression
A feeling of profound sadness, guilt, hopelessness, lack of energy and/or worthlessness. Suicide risk is high during depressive episodes and may require emergent hospitalization.
Developmental disability
An umbrella term used for any lifelong physical or mental impairment that is due to an event during pregnancy or childhood. Genetic abnormalities, substance abuse during pregnancy, and autism are the most common causes.
Diabetes
An inability of the body to process sugar due to a lack of or resistance to insulin, the hormone that regulates blood sugar levels. It is commonly associated with obesity and pregnancy, but can also be the result of autoimmune destruction of the pancreas, the organ that secretes insulin.
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy
Destruction of the body's sensory nerves (most commonly in the feet and hands) due to damage to the blood vessels that feed the nerves. Damage is caused by chronically high blood sugar from uncontrolled diabetes.
Diabetic retinopathy
Damage of the light-sensing layer of the eye due to diabetes. Small bleeding occurs, clouding the vision. Because permanent blindness can occur, diabetics should receive regular eye exams.
Diverticulitis
Inflammation of small outpouchings ("diverticula") in the large intestine. People with low fiber in their diet can develop these outpouchings when they get older, and bacteria can grow in them causing this disease process.
Diverticulosis
An out-pouching of the inner layer of the colon through a weakness in the outer muscular layer of the colon. Risk factors include older age, low fiber diet, and chronic constipation.
Drug abuse
A condition in which someone continues to use drugs (including street drugs, alcohol, and prescription medications) despite it causing problems in the person's life (e.g. arrests, career or relationship problems, health).
Drug abuse (cocaine)
When an individual snorts, smokes (crack), or injects cocaine. Using cocaine can put an enormous strain on the heart and actually cause a heart attack in otherwise healthy individuals.
Drug abuse (opioids)
A condition in which someone continues to use opioid drugs (e.g. heroin, morphine, prescription pain killers such as oxycodone) despite it causing problems in the person's life (e.g. arrests, career or relationship problems, health).
Drug reaction
An umbrella term for an undesired and often unpleasant effect of a drug. This can be a consequence of prolonged use (e.g. stomach ulcers from NSAIDs), idiosyncratic (e.g. red-man syndrome from vancomycin), or allergic (e.g. penicillin allergy).
Dry eye of unknown cause
A gritty sensation which can be irritating and lead to feeling fatigued. Either tears are not produced fast enough or they evaporate too quickly. Prolonged dryness of the surface of the eye can lead to inflammation.
Dysthymic disorder
Similar to depression but generally less severe. Patients often feel hopeless, have difficulty sleeping, sleep too much, have difficulty concentrating, and may be irritable. If the patient voices suicidal thoughts, call 911 immediately.
Ear wax impaction
Buildup of the natural waxy substance released inside the ears to protect from infection. It is often the result of attempts to use hygeine products such as cotton swabs to clean the ears instead of letting ear wax clear naturally. This can lead to a feeling of ear fullness and pain.
Eczema
A condition marked by inflammation of the skin. Also known as atopic dermatitis, the exact cause of this condition is unknown but presumed to be a combination of environmental irritants and genetic predisposition.
Epilepsy
A chronic neurological disorder in which patients are prone to seizures. A isolated seizure does not mean a patient has epilepsy as there are multiple causes for seizures (e.g. seizures due to fever in a child).
Erectile dysfunction
The inability to achieve or maintain an erection. The cause can be biologic (e.g. insufficient blood flow) or psychogenic (e.g. anxiety). While episodes of erectile dysfunction are normal, prolonged impairment should be evaluated by a physician.
Eustachian tube dysfunction (ear disorder)
Characterized by failure of the middle ear to be sufficiently vented. Normally, middle ear secretions are drained through the Eustachian tube into the back of the nose. Without this pathway, patients commonly develop middle ear infection.
Female infertility of unknown cause
Infertility is defined as an inability to conceive after regular unprotected sexual intercourse for 12 months. In 20% of cases, the underlying problem cannot be found.
Fibroadenoma
A non-dangerous lump of tissue that can develop in the breasts of women (and sometimes men). Unlike breast cancers, these often grow and shrink based on a woman's menstrual cycle (i.e. "the period").
Fibromyalgia
A syndrome characterized by 'trigger points' which are overly painful to the touch. Fibromyalgia is a neuropsychiatric syndrome and often coexists with depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder.
Flu
A common virus that causes infection of the nose and throat. The virus mutates, leading to new strains every year. Occasionally it can "jump" species, leading to recent outbreaks of avian or swine flu. Influenza can be deadly in some populations, such as the elderly or young children. A vaccine is available.
Fracture of the ankle
A break or crack anywhere in the bones of the ankle (lower leg or upper foot). These are typically caused by impact injuries and can vary from a small crack in the bone to a part of the bone shattering.
Fracture of the arm
A break or crack anywhere in the bones of the arm (upper arm or forearm). These are typically caused by impact injuries and can vary from a small crack in the bone to a part of the bone shattering.
Fracture of the facial bones
A break or crack anywhere in the bones of the face. These are typically caused by impact injuries and can vary from a small crack in the bone to a part of the bone shattering.
Fracture of the finger
A break or crack anywhere in the bones of the fingers. These are typically caused by impact injuries and can vary from a small crack in the bone to a part of the bone shattering.
Fracture of the foot
A break or crack anywhere in the bones of the foot. These are typically caused by impact injuries and can vary from a small crack in the bone to a part of the bone shattering.
Fracture of the hand
A break or crack anywhere in the bones of the hand. These are typically caused by impact injuries and can vary from a small crack in the bone to a part of the bone shattering.
Fracture of the leg
A break or crack anywhere in the bones of the leg (thigh or lower leg). These are typically caused by impact injuries and can vary from a small crack in the bone to a part of the bone shattering.
Fracture of the rib
A break or crack anywhere in the bones of the arm (upper arm or forearm). These are typically caused by impact injuries to the side and can vary from a small crack to the bone breaking off and puncturing the lung.
Fracture of the vertebra
A break or crack anywhere in the bones of the spine. These are typically caused by major impact injuries and can be dangerous if associated with damage to the spinal cord.
Fungal infection of the skin
A very common disease and includes athlete's foot, jock itch, and ringworm infection (not truly a worm). Itching, skin flaking and changes in skin color in the affected area are hallmark signs. Rare fungal infections with Rhizopus can be very serious.
Gallstone
The gall bladder is a structure that holds bile, a compound released for digestion of fats. Sometimes the bile collects forming gallstones. Many people have gallstones without any symptoms. However, they can sometimes cause blockages or lead to infections.
Gastritis
An inflammation of the wall of the stomach. It is usually the end result of the stomach acid overcoming the mucous barrier which protects the lining of the stomach. Causes include excessive alcohol, NSAIDs, steroids, and infection with H. Pylori.
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
Flow of acidic stomach contents up the esophagus, causing irritation of its lining. Symptoms can be as subtle as a chronic cough or strong enough to mimic a heart attack.
Gastrointestinal hemorrhage
Flow of acidic stomach contents up the esophagus (the tube that takes food from the mouth to the stomach), causing irritation of its lining. Symptoms can be as subtle as a chronic cough or strong enough to mimic a heart attack.
Gestational diabetes
An increase in blood sugar levels in a pregnant woman who did not previously have diabetes. This condition needs to be carefully monitored for the safety of the baby, and though blood sugar levels typically return to normal after pregnancy, the woman is at risk for developing diabetes in the future.
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