Listing common conditions

Displaying 1 - 50 of 225 in total

Abdominal hernia
Internal organs poking out through a hole in the wall of the abdominal cavity (i.e. the inside part of the belly that holds in the gut organs). These often occur following intense strain, such as when lifting heavy objects, and may require surgery to fix.
Acne
A skin condition in which hormone-related changes to the hair follicles in the skin of the face, back, and chest leads to the development of comedones (blackheads) and pustules (pimples). In women, acne may be a symptom of PCOS.
Actinic keratosis
A noncancerous, crusty patch of skin in sun-exposed area such as the face. Actinic keratosis may progress to cancer if left untreated.
Acute bronchiolitis
An infection of the lower respiratory tract affecting the smaller airways (bronchioles). It is common in children, especially during the winter months, due to outbreaks of the virus RSV.
Acute bronchitis
Inflammation of the bronchi, the structures moving air between the windpipe and the lungs. Acute inflammation is commonly due to viruses and occasionally bacteria. Long-term exposure to irritants such as cigarette smoke can cause chronic inflammation.
Acute kidney injury
A rapid loss in the ability of the kidneys to filter blood contents and produce urine. This can be short-term and reversible (e.g. due to dehydration), or if severe can be life threatening.
Acute otitis media
An infection of the space behind the ear drum. It is common in children and some cases require antibiotics and/or drainage.
Acute pancreatitis
Inflammation of the pancreas, an important organ for digestion and regulation of blood sugar levels. The vast majority of cases are either due to a gallstone getting stuck in the duct coming the pancreas or due to alcohol abuse. Severe pancreatitis is life-threatening.
Acute sinusitis
An inflammation of the mucous lining of the bony cavities of the face. Should the inflammation last longer than 4 weeks, it is considered chronic sinusitis. 98% of cases are due to viruses against which antibiotics are ineffective.
Adjustment reaction
Also known as "adjustment disorder," this is a mental condition in which a person has trouble coping with a specific life event, such as intense grief after losing a loved one or worry after losing a job. This condition typically goes away with time, but can lead to more serious psychiatric disorders down the line.
Alcohol abuse
A condition in which someone continues to drink alcohol despite it causing problems in the person's life (e.g. arrests, career or relationship problems, health).
Allergy
A disorder in which the immune system is triggered to react to certain specific, usually harmless, substances in the environment (allergens), leading to a rapid and predictable set of symptoms (allergic reaction).
Alzheimer disease
The most common progressive dementia in the United States. Forgetfulness and impairment of recent memory are the early signs. The disease later leads to irritability, aggression and mood swings. It is ultimately fatal.
Anemia
Either a decrease in the total number of red blood cells or a decrease in the amount of oxygen-binding molecules (hemoglobin) in red blood cells. This leads to poor delivery of oxygen to the tissues of the body.
Angina
Chest pain due to insufficient delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle. While not a heart attack per se, having angina is a sign of coronary artery disease. If the pain if new, worse than usual, or occurred at rest, call 911.
Anxiety
A feeling of fear that something bad will happen. The fear can be very specific (e.g. taking a test at school) or abstract (e.g. general worrying about nothing in particular). Anxiety can be mild to disabling.
Appendicitis
Inflammation of the appendix. This disease is common in children and the elderly. The appendix should be removed with reasonable suspicion for appendicitis, as it may rupture otherwise. A ruptured appendix is life-threatening.
Arthritis of the hip
Inflammation of the hip joint leading to pain with movement. It is commonly caused by degeneration of the joint due to overuse (osteoarthritis), but can also be caused by autoimmune disorders or infections of the hip joint.
Asthma
A chronic disease with recurring episodes of wheezing and difficulty breathing. Some patients have chronic cough as their only symptom. It is common among children, but also present in adults. Onset of the illness is usually before 50 years of age.
Atrial fibrillation
An uncoordinated pacing of the heart's rhythm by multiple groups of cells in the atrium of the heart. Normally, there is only one group (sinus node) that paces. People with A-fib have an irregular heart rhythm and are may need blood thinners.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
A developmental disorder in children, characterized by impaired ability to focus on tasks, impulsivity, and having above-average energy. It typically begins before age 7, but diagnosis may be delayed and is at times not made until adulthood.
Autism
A spectrum of brain development disorders leading to problems with social interaction and verbal or non-verbal communication, as well as repetitive behaviors. While it does run in families, the exact causes are unknown.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)
An increase in the size of the prostate. The prostate surrounds the tube taking urine out of the body in men at a point just below the bladder. An enlarged prostate can make it difficult to initiate a stream and empty the bladder completely when urinating.
Bipolar disorder
A mental illness in which the patient can lapse into periods of depression or mania. During periods of mania, patients often are full of energy, will spend enormous sums of money, are hyper-sexual or hyper-religious, and are prone to substance abuse.
Bone disorder
Any problem relating to the bones, including abnormal growth, abnormal breakdown, inflammation or infection of the bones, or broken bones.
Brachial neuritis
Inflammation of a network of nerves in the shoulder and arm. Also known as Parsonage-Turner syndrome, the cause of this illness is unknown and it can lead to muscle weakness and paralysis in the arm. However, most cases get better within 1-2 years.
Breast cancer
A malignant transformation of the tissues of the breast. Cancer can arise from the ducts, glands, or other tissues within the breast. Signs include breast lumps, skin dimpling, and discharge from the nipple. Though less common, men are also afflicted.
Bruise
After impact to a part of the body, tiny blood vessels may tear leading to bleeding in the tissues under the skin. Bruises typically appear blue or purple in color and the area may be swollen or tender.
Burn
An injury to the skin or flesh caused by damage from heat, electricity, chemicals, friction, or radiation. Severity can range from first degree (top of the skin only) to fourth degree (affecting flesh under the skin).
Bursitis
Inflammation of one of the bursae, the sacs of synovial fluid associated with a joint. Normally, bursae provide for frictionless gliding of tendons, but when inflammed (bursitis), significant friction leads to discomfort with movement.
Cardiomyopathy
Poor function of the heart muscle. It can be due to toxins (e.g. alcohol), mechanical problems (dilated cardiomyopathy), lack of blood flow (heart attack), or genetic (e.g. HOCM). Treatment differs based on cause, but patients are at risk for sudden death.
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Compression of the median nerve as it travels through the wrist. Common symptoms include pain, numbness, and/or weakness, especially at night. It is often caused by overuse.
Cataract
Clouding of the lens of the eye. It is common in the elderly, diabeticcs, steroid users, and smokers. Children who develop cataracts often have a metabolic abnormality.
Cerebral palsy
A group of conditions that cause problems with body movement, coordination, muscle tone, or posture. This can include problems with the muscles of speech, swallowing, and eye movement. It is typically caused by problems in brain development prior to birth. The exact trigger is often unknown.
Cervical cancer
A malignant transformation of the tissues of the cervix in women. The cervix is the area connecting the vagina to the uterus. These cancers are often caused by long-term viral infection and can be prevented with vaccination or regular screening (pap smears).
Cholecystitis
An inflammation of the gallbladder, a structure involved in digestion. It is typically caused by backup from gallstones that may lead to an infection. The most common treatment is surgical removal of the gallbladder.
Chronic back pain
Discomfort in the back lasting longer than 12 weeks. It is most common in the lower back.
Chronic constipation
A reduced frequency of bowel movements or the need to significantly strain during a bowel movement. Stool often becomes very hard in constipated patients.
Chronic glaucoma
Degradation of the head of the optic nerve, usually caused by increased pressure in the eye. Peripheral vision is impaired first, followed by central vision. Untreated, it may progress to blindness
Chronic kidney disease
A progressive loss, over months to years, of the kidneys' ability to filter blood and produce urine. The most common causes are persistent high blood pressure and uncontrolled diabetes.
Chronic knee pain
A condition in which knee pain persists for a long period of time. Pain is often worse when bearing weight on the joint (walking, running, jumping, etc.). Causes include inflammation of the joints, tendons, or bursa of the knee.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
Usually the result of prolonged exposure to cigarette smoke. Damage to the lungs makes it difficult to absorb oxygen and breathing out becomes more difficult. COPD exacerbation can be life threatening.
Chronic pain disorder
Pain lasting longer than 6 months that can no longer be explained by a physical cause. Many patients with CPD had an initial cause of pain (e.g. a broken arm) which healed, yet the pain failed to resolve.
Chronic sinusitis
Inflammation of the lining of the sinuses, the air cavities within the bones of the face. Sinusitis is considered chronic if it lasts for 12 weeks or longer. Individuals with allergies or recurrent episodes of acute sinusitis may develop chronic sinusitis.
Chronic ulcer
An ulcer is a sore or break in an area of skin or membrane, causing damage to the area. If an ulcer lasts for a prolonged period of time it is referred to as "chronic." Examples include stomach ulcers, bedsores, and diabetic ulcers.
Colorectal cancer
Malignancy in the large intestine and the rectum. Rarely, some genetic disorders such as familial adenomatous polyposis may predispose a person to getting these types of cancers. Regular screening with colonoscopy or fecal occult blood testing is recommended and can greatly reduce the risk of colorectal cancer.
Common cold
A viral infection of the nose and throat, most commonly leading to stuffy nose. Transmission is through droplets from other infected individuals and can be limited by proper cough/sneeze hygiene and hand washing.
Complex regional pain syndrome
A condition in which a body part can swell, redden and become extremely painful. Although the exact cause is unknown, it is believed to be due to malfunctioning nerves. Risk factors include a history of nerve injury, stroke, heart attack and smoking.
Concussion
A mild traumatic brain injury resulting in temporary loss of certain brain functions. Tissue damage is usually not apparent right away, but there is now evidence in athletes that damage may be accumulate over time.
Conduct disorder
In children and adolescents, a persistent pattern of behavior that shows a lack of consideration for other people or society. This is often a precursor to antisocial personality disorder in adults.
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