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Acute kidney injury

Also known as AKI, ARF, Acute Renal Failure, Acute Kidney Failure, Acute Renal Insufficiency, and Acute Renal Shutdown

Acute kidney injury (AKI), previously called acute renal failure (ARF), is a rapid loss of kidney function.

Source: Wikipedia

What are the symptoms?

Within all the people who go to their doctor with acute kidney injury, 41% report having shortness of breath, 39% report having weakness, and 30% report having vomiting. The symptoms that are highly suggestive of acute kidney injury are kidney mass and symptoms of the kidneys, although you may still have acute kidney injury without those symptoms.


What might my doctor prescribe?

Common Tests and Procedures

Patients with acute kidney injury often receive hematologic tests, complete blood count, radiographic imaging procedure, urinalysis, glucose measurement, electrolytes panel, kidney function tests and intravenous fluid replacement .

Common Medications

The most commonly prescribed drugs for patients with acute kidney injury include allopurinol, sodium polystyrene sulfonate (kayexalate), darbepoetin alfa (aranesp), epoetin alfa (procrit), sodium bicarbonate, calcitriol, torsemide, calcium acetate, norepinephrine, repaglinide (prandin), ganciclovir, paricalcitol (zemplar) and ceftazidime .

Allopurinol
$4
(28 days)
Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate (Kayexalate)
$57
(14 days)
Darbepoetin Alfa (Aranesp)
$1004
(21 days)
Epoetin Alfa (Procrit)
$804
(21 days)
Sodium Bicarbonate
$18
(21 days)
Calcitriol
$37
(28 days)
Torsemide
$23
(28 days)
Calcium Acetate
$103
(28 days)
Norepinephrine

Repaglinide (Prandin)
$165
(28 days)
Ganciclovir
$182
(14 days)
Paricalcitol (Zemplar)
$242
(28 days)
Ceftazidime
$199
(7 days)

Who is at risk?

Groups of people at highest risk for acute kidney injury include age 75+ years age 60-74 years. On the other hand, age 1-4 years almost never get acute kidney injury.

Age

< 1 years
0.1x
1-4 years
0.0x
5-14 years
0.1x
15-29 years
0.2x
30-44 years
0.4x
45-59 years
1.1x
60-74 years
2.2x
75+ years
3.5x

Sex

Male
1.3x
Female
0.8x

Race/Ethnicity

Black
1.1x
Hispanic
0.7x
White
1.1x
Other
1.0x
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