Listing conditions

Displaying 601 - 650 of 801 in total

Poisoning due to sedatives
An overdose of sedatives or tranquilizers, any of a group of street drugs or medications that cause calmness, drowsiness, and sleep. Depending upon the exact medication, the symptoms vary, though they can all be life-threatening. Common sedatives include barbituates (e.g. Amytal, phenobarbital), benzodiazapines (e.g. Xanax, Valium), and alcohol.
Polycystic kidney disease
A genetic condition in which numerous water-filled sacs (i.e. cysts) develop in the kidneys, the organs responsible for filtering blood and producing urine. These cysts, though not cancerous, can lead to high blood pressure and kidney failure.
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)
A hormonal disorder in women marked by the formation of numerous cysts in the ovaries, the reproductive organs housing the eggs. There is a strong genetic component, and symptoms include irregular menstrual cycles (i.e. "periods"), lowered fertility, acne, coarse bodily hair growth, obesity, diabetes, and high cholesterol.
Polycythemia vera
A type of bone marrow cancer leading to an increased number of red blood cells, the cells that carry oxygen, in the blood. The increased number of cells leads to increased thickness of the blood, which can lead to life-threatening blood clots. Though not curable, there are many treatments that can thin the blood and drastically reduce the risk of complications.
Polymyalgia rheumatica
An inflammatory disorder leading to muscle pain and stiffness, primarily of the shoulders and hips. It most often occurs after the age of 60. The exact cause is unknown.
Postoperative infection
An infection that takes place after surgery. Common infections include those around the surgical incision, pneumonias, abscesses, or life threatening blood infections leading to a condition known as sepsis.
Postpartum depression
Clinical depression affecting women (and sometimes men) within 12 months of childbirth. Though the cause is presently unknown, a variety of treatments including therapy, support groups, and medications have been shown to be effective.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Characterized by nightmares, flashbacks, and intrusive thoughts due to threatening situations in the past (e.g. rape, deployment to war). Patients report difficulty sleeping and being hyper-vigilant (e.g. always scanning their surroundings for threats).
Preeclampsia
A condition marked by high blood pressure and presence of urine protein in a pregnant woman. The exact cause is unknown, but if left untreated it can lead to potentially life-threatening seizures, known as eclampsia.
Pregnancy
Not a disease but a natural process. However, there are certain risks to both mother and baby and therefore the continued care of a board-certified obstetrician is highly recommended.
Premature atrial contractions (PACs)
A cardiac rhythm abnormality marked by premature heartbeats originating from the upper chambers of the heart. The exact cause is not known, but they are common among people of all ages, with or without heart disease. Without symptoms, this typically does not require treatment.
Premature ovarian failure
A condition in which normal function of the ovaries, the organs containing eggs in females, is lost before the age of 40. This commonly leads to low levels of the hormone estrogen and often infertility. It may be due to genetic abnormalities, chemotherapy or radiation therapy, auto-immune diseases, or unknown factors.
Premature rupture of amniotic membrane
A condition in which a patient who has been pregnant for at least 37 weeks (in other words, the fetus is not premature) has a rupture of the amniotic sac (the fluid filled sac that holds the fetus) before contractions of the uterus (i.e. the womb) begin. Risk factors include infection, genetic mutations in the fetus, or fear in the mother. If this occurs, birthing often needs to be induced by medications.
Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs)
A relatively common heartbeat abnormality in which the electrical signal for a heartbeat starts in the lower chamber of the heart instead of the upper chamber. This may feel like a "skipped beat" or palpitation, and it usually poses no danger.
Premenstrual tension syndrome
Commonly known as "PMS," this is a group of emotional symptoms, sometimes accompanied by physical symptoms, that occur in women 1 or 2 weeks prior to menstruation (i.e. "the period") and stop once menstruation begins. The exact cause is unknown.
Presbyacusis
Loss of hearing that is a normal part of aging. It usually affects ability to hear high-pitched sounds more than low-pitched sounds. There are numerous causes, including degeneration of the blood vessels, nerves, and other structures in the ear.
Presbyopia
A condition in which the eyes are no longer able to focus on nearby objects. Often first noticed when reading print in low light, this condition is common with aging, and is thought to be due to stiffening of the lens within the eye.
Priapism
A medical condition in which an erect penis does not return to its flaccid state within four hours. It can be extremely painful and lead to damage to the penis. It is considered a medical emergency. It may be due to a variety of issues, including overuse of erectile dysfunction medication, sickle-cell disease, leukemia, and spinal cord trauma.
Primary immunodeficiency
A blanket term for disorders of the immune system present from birth and typically genetic in origin. These disorders increase the risk of infections to a varying degree, from mild to severe.
Primary insomnia
Sleeplessness (either difficulty falling or staying asleep or not feeling refreshed after sleep) for over one month that is not explained by another medical, psychiatric, or environmental issue.
Primary kidney disease
A disorder of the kidneys that is not caused by another condition affecting the whole body (e.g. hypertension, diabetes, etc.). Examples include polycystic kidney disease, some glomerular diseases, or interstitial nephritis. Primary kidney diseases are often genetic, but can be due to environmental factors such as toxins.
Primary thrombocythemia
A rare blood disorder in which the bone marrow produces too many platelets, the cells that help with blood clotting. Though a specific gene mutation is associated with most cases, the exact causes is unknown. It can lead to both increased bleeding and blood clots.
Problem during pregnancy
Any complications experienced during pregnancy, including early labor, miscarriage, maternal diabetes, maternal heart failure, persistent morning sickness, anemia, urinary tract infections, etc.
Prostate cancer
A malignant transformation of cells in the prostate, a small secretory organ found just below a man's bladder. It is common in elderly men and most cases grow very slowly. As of late, the utility of the "PSA" screening test has come under scrutiny.
Prostatitis
Inflammation of the prostate, an internal sexual organ in men that helps produce semen. When symptoms have been occurring for a short period of time, the cause is usually a bacterial infection. When symptoms are chronic, it may be due to infection or other inflammatory causes.
Protein deficiency
A condition in which the body does not get enough intake of protein, one of the main sources of energy in food. This can lead to muscle loss and a number of potentially life-threatening conditions. It is more common among vegetarians, people with eating disorders, and those in underdeveloped countries.
Pseudohypoparathyroidism
A rare condition in which patients have low blood levels of calcium and high levels of phosphate, despite normal levels of parathyroid hormone (which normally regulates calcium and phosphate levels). In these patients, dysfunctional proteins do not respond to signalling by parathyroid hormone. It can lead to serious complications, such as muscle spasms and seizures.
Pseudotumor cerebri
Also known as idiopathic intracranial hypertension, this is a neurological disorder characterized by increased pressure around the brain without any clear mass or disease in the brain. The cause is unknown. The disease may resolve on its own or become a long-standing condition.
Psoriasis
A skin condition in which the immune system mistakenly attacks skin cells. The irritated skin cells grow even faster, leading to formation of scales and plaques.
Psychosexual disorder
A skin condition in which the immune system mistakenly attacks skin cells. The irritated skin cells grow even faster, leading to formation of scales and plaques.
Psychotic disorder
A mental illness that does not precisely fit a predetermined diagnostic category. It is therefore commonly referred to as "NOS," meaning "not otherwise specified". A key feature is a impaired perception of reality.
Pterygium
This is a non-cancerous growth on the conjunctiva, the thin membrane that covers the eyeball and inside of the eyelid. It is caused by degeneration of the connective tissue and subsequent increase in scar-like tissue. It typically grows from the inside part of the eye outwards, and is associated with excessive exposure to sun, wind, or sand.
Pulmonary congestion
Also known as pulmonary edema, this is the presence of fluid in the air sacs of the lungs. It is often the result of heart failure (fluid builds up in the lungs because the heart is not strong enough to pump it out). It can occur for a variety of other reasons, including certain medications, kidney failure, pneumonia, and many other issues.
Pulmonary embolism
A potentially life-threatening condition in which a blood clot is stuck in the arteries that send blood to the lungs. Clots often originate in the veins of the leg, and risk factors include recent surgery, long periods of immobility, cancer, and certain genetic clotting disorders.
Pulmonary eosinophilia
A group of diseases leading to an abnormal collection of eosinophils, a type of blood cells, inside the tissue of the lungs. There are a number of causes, including parasitic infections, a variety of vascular and auto-immune diseases, and many other disorders.
Pulmonary fibrosis
Scarring of the lung. It can be develop due to auto-immune disorders, exposure to environmental pollutants (e.g. asbestos, silica dust, etc.), cigarette smoking, certain medications, or radiation therapy to the chest. It can also be due to certain genetic conditions and sometimes the cause is unknown.
Pulmonary hypertension
Increased pressure in the pulmonary arteries, which carry blood from the heart to the lungs to pick up oxygen. There are a variety of possible causes, including heart disease, lung disease, clot, and auto-immune diseases. If untreated, this can lead to "right heart failure."
Pulmonic valve disease
Problems with the valve in the heart from which blood leaves the heart and goes to the lungs. The valve can either fail to open (pulmonic stenosis) or fail to close (pulmonic insufficiency). There are many causes for this condition, which may require surgery if severe.
Pyelonephritis
An inflammation of the kidney, typically due to a bacterial infection. These often occur after a normal urinary tract infection is left untreated and spreads upwards to the kidneys.
Pyloric stenosis
A narrowing of the opening of the stomach into the intestine, typically due to enlargement of the muscles that surround the opening. It is most commonly a birth defect in infants, leading to vomiting and usually requiring surgery.
Pyogenic skin infection
Any infection of the skin, usually bacterial, that causes pus. This includes boils or more widespread rashes with pus-filled blisters.
Rabies
A viral infection leading to inflammation of the brain. It is often spread to humans by a bite or scratch from an animal, such as dogs or bats. The disease is prevented by vaccinating pets and staying away from wild animals.
Raynaud disease
A condition that leads to certain areas of the body (fingers, toes, nose, ears) becoming numb, cool, or different colors in response to cold temperatures or stress. It is due to the spasming and narrowing of the small arteries that bring blood to the skin, thus preventing normal blood circulation in those areas. The cause is unkown. Similar symptoms, known as Raynaud's phenomenon, may be due to other system-wide diseases.
Reactive arthritis
A condition marked by inflammation of one area (particularly the joints) due to an infection in another area of the body (such as the bowels, genitals, or urinary tract). It is thought to be due to the immune system attacking certain proteins in the body that are similar to those found in the bacteria causing the infections.
Rectal disorder
Any problem related to the rectum, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, cancer, incontinence, and infections.
Restless leg syndrome
A neurologic condition marked by an irresistible urge to move a part or all of the body in order to stop an uncomfortable sensation. The exact cause is currently unknown.
Retinal detachment
A disorder of the eye in which the retina, a thin but essential layer of the eyeball, begins to peel away. It can lead to blindness if untreated, and is a medical emergency. It can be caused in a variety of ways, including direct injury, heavy lifting, and prior eye surgery.
Retinopathy due to high blood pressure
A condition in which longstanding high blood pressure leads to damage to the retina, a thin layer in the back of the eyeball that takes in the visual information that is eventually sent to the brain. High blood pressure causes damage to the blood vessels feeding the retina, resulting in decreased blood and oxygen supply.
Rhabdomyolysis
A breakdown of muscle tissue leading to release of muscle cell contents into the bloodstream, potentially causing life threatening damage to the kidneys. Common causes include crushing injuries, certain drugs (especially cocaine and amphetamines), genetic muscle diseases, extreme heat, extreme exercise, poor blood flow, severe dehydration, and longstanding seizures.
Rheumatic fever
An inflammatory disease following infection by the bacteria that causes strep throat. It is thought to be caused by the immune system attacking proteins in the heart, joints, skin, and brain that are similar to those found in the bacteria. It leads to a numbber of serious side effects, particularly heart disease. It is now rare in the United States due to widespread treatment of strep throat and other infections with antibiotics.
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