Listing conditions

Displaying 451 - 500 of 801 in total

Macular degeneration
A gradual loss of vision due to damage to the macula (the area of the eye responsible for sharpness of the image in the center of vision). It affects the center of vision, making it difficult to read and recognize faces. The peripheral vision is often unaffected.
Magnesium deficiency
Poor dietary intake of magnesium, potentially leading to dizziness, cramps, and weakness. If severe, it can be extremely dangerous. It is common among alcohol abusers, diabetics, and those with chronic vomiting and diarrhea.
A disease caused by infection by parasites of the Plasmodium group. It is transmitted to humans through mosquito bites and is most common in sub-Saharan Africa and tropical parts of Asia and South and Central America. The disease can often be deadly and resistance to treatment is common.
Male genitalia infection
Any infection of the genitalia (penis, scrotum, testicles) in men. Common infections include those caused by sexual transmitted diseases, skin infections, abscesss, infections under the foreskin, and Fournier's gangrene (a life-threatening infection, often following injury or burns).
Malignant hypertension
Very high blood pressure that occurs suddenly and causes symptomatic impairment of one more organs, such as the brain, heart, or kidneys. This is a medical emergency. People at high risk include those with chronically high blood pressure, kidney failure, or renal artery stenosis.
Marfan syndrome
A genetic disorder that runs in families, caused by abnormality in fibrillin-1, one of the proteins in soft tissues. It leads to a particular appearance (tall, long limbs, long fingers), as well as potential defects in the heart valves and many other vital structures.
Marijuana abuse
A condition in which someone continues to use marijuana despite it causing problems in the person's life (e.g. arrests, career or relationship problems, lack of productivity, health).
The surgical removal of one or both breasts, either partially or completely. This is often done to treat or prevent breast cancer.
An infection of one of the bones of the skull, located just behind the ear. It is often a complication of an untreated middle ear infection. If mastoiditis is left untreated, infection can spread to the brain.
Meckel diverticulum
A birth defect in which there is a slight outpouching of the bowels. Most people do not have any symptoms. Rarely, it may lead to painless rectal bleeding or other complications such as bowel obstruction.
A malignant transformation of melanocytes, the cells that give skin its color. These often present as changes in the size, shape, or color of existing moles. Genetics and UV radiation (from the sun or tanning beds) play a role in their formation.
Meniere disease
An inner ear disorder affecting hearing and balance, thought to be due to an excess amount of fluid buildup in the inner ear. The exact cause is unknown and symptoms range in severity.
A group of tumors arising from the meninges, the membranes that cover and support the brain and spinal cord. A large majority, though not all, are noncancerous. The exact cause is not known, though certain medical conditions, such as neurofibromatosis type 2, increase the risk.
Inflammation of the meninges, the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. This is usually due to an infection and is considered a medical emergency. If untreated it can lead to sepsis, blood clotting disorders, loss of consciousness, seizures, or even death.
By definition a lack of menstrual cycles (i.e. "the period") for 12 months in a row. This usually occurs during a woman's late 40's or early 50's.
Metabolic disorder
Any disorder of the chemical reaction pathways used by the body to convert food into energy. These are often genetic disorders (e.g. PKU) but can also be acquired (e.g. diabetes).
Metastatic cancer
Spread of cancer from its original site to other organs in the body. The liver, lung, brain, and bones are common sites of metastasis. Metastatic cancer often requires chemotherapy, as surgical excision is no longer feasible.
A type of headache that lasts several hours to days and typically occurs many times throughout the lives of individuals who suffer from them. The pain is often severe, throbbing in nature, and worse on one side of the head. It is also typically accompanied by nausea and sensitivity to light or sound. The exact cause is unknown.
Missed abortion
Also known as delayed or silent miscarriage, this is the loss of an early pregnancy without any clear signs or symptoms. It typically occurs due to a major genetic problem in the fetus that prevents it from developing.
Mitral valve disease
Characterized by poor function of one the valves in the heart. In mitral valve disease, some of the blood is pumped backward, causing the heart to have to work harder to still deliver the same amount of blood to the organs.
Pain during ovulation in women. Ovulation is the stage of the menstrual cycle in which an egg is released from the ovaries into the fallopian tube. It typically occurs roughly midway between "periods." The condition is not harmful and treatment involves relieving pain.
Molluscum contagiosum
A viral infection of the skin and mucous membranes leading to flesh-colored, round, pearly bumps on the skin. Bumps in one part of the body can be spread to other parts by touching. The condition can resolve on its own or require treatment.
An inflammation of a single nerve outside of the brain or spinal cord. This can cause pain or weakness in a specific part of the body. If multiple nerves in different locations are involved, this is known as mononeuritis multiplex.
Often referred to as "mono," this is an infectious disease most often caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. It is spread through saliva (i.e. "spit") and lives inside immune cells. It typically resolves on its own, but heavy physical activity should be avoided due to risk of rupturing the spleen.
Moyamoya disease
A condition in which the arteries of the brain narrow and often develop blood clots, leading to decreased blood flow. It is believed to be genetic and run in families. This may lead to an increased risk of stroke.
An umbrella term for inflammation and ulceration of the mucous membranes, the lining of the digestive tract (from mouth to anus). It is a common side effect of chemotherapy
Multiple myeloma
A cancer of plasma cells in the bone marrow, the white blood cells that produce antibodies. This condition can interfere with production of normal blood cells and cause damage to the bones, kidneys, and nerves.
Multiple sclerosis
A disease of the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) marked by damage to the cells that surround nerves and help them function. There are several subtypes, most have symptoms that wax and wane, typically getting worse over time. The exact cause is not known.
An viral infection primarily affecting one of the saliva (i.e. spit) producing glands under the ears. With the introduction of a vaccine, it is rare in the United States. The infection usually clears on its own, but may sometimes lead to permanent complications, such as hearing loss.
Muscle spasm
A sudden, involuntary contraction of a single muscle. It is often very uncomfortable. Most muscle spasm are short-lived, but some may persist for days (e.g. torticollis). Isolated spams of the jaw may be an early sign of tetanus.
Muscular dystrophy
A group of muscle diseases marked by weakening of the muscles and difficulty with movement. Most forms are genetic and run in families, with symptoms presenting at an early age. There is no known cure, but a variety of therapies can improve quality of life.
Myasthenia gravis
A disorder in which the body's immune system attacks the connections between the nerves and the muscles, leading to muscle weakness. This type of weakness gets worse with use and improves with rest. Muscles controlling the eyes, eyelids, face, and throat are most commonly affected.
Myelodysplastic syndrome
A blanket term for conditions in which blood cells do not develop normally in the bone marrow. Some are genetic, some do not have a known cause, others are due to chemicals or irritation. This may affect all or only certain types of blood cells.
Inflammation of the heart muscle, often caused by infections, toxins, autoimmune attack, or physical damage (e.g. electricity, radiation, etc.). The most common cause is viral infection.
A brief, involuntary twitching of a muscle or group of muscles. It is a sign of other issues, such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and certain seizure disorders.
The medical term for "nearsightedness". A patient has no difficulty reading a book, but is not able to read an advertisement on the other sight of the street. Glasses, contacts or laser correction are able to improve vision.
A blanket term for inflammation of the muscles; it typically refers to certain auto-immune diseases such as dermatomyositis, but can be caused by infections including the flu, drugs including statins, or even injury from excessive exercise.
A neurologic condition leading to severe disruption of normal sleep. There are several different symptoms, including recurrent lapses into sleep during the daytime and sudden loss of muscle tone after experiencing intense emotions. The exact cause is not known.
Nasal polyp
Non-cancerous, soft growths of the lining of the inside of the nose or sinuses. They are caused by chronic inflammation, for instance from asthma, recurrent sinus infections, allergies, or certain immune disorders. If they cause significant symptoms they may be removed.
Necrotizing fasciitis
An infection of the deeper layers of the skin and tissues directly under the skin, which can rapidly spread from one area to another. It typically requires immediate surgery and antibiotics. It can be caused by a variety of bacteria.
Neonatal jaundice
A yellowing of the skin or other tissues in a newborn infant. This can be normal (physiologic jaundice) and go away in a couple weeks. It can also represent an underlying disorder (pathological jaundice) if blood tests are markedly abnormal or the condition persists.
Nerve impingement near the shoulder
Compression of a nerve in the shoulder by surrounding tissues. This may lead to pain, tingling, or weakness anywhere from the shoulder to the hand.
Pain coming from irritation or damage to a nerve or group of nerves. It is often difficult to diagnose. Potential sources include pinched nerves or disease such as diabetes or multiple sclerosis.
Any of a group of genetic conditions that run in families and lead to tumors or growths forming from nerves. The vast majority of these tumors are non-cancerous, but there is a slightly increased risk of cancer as well. Tumors can arise from nerves in the skin, leading to physical deformity.
Neuromyelitis optica
A disorder leading to swelling and inflammation of the spinal cord and the nerve that brings visual information from the eye to the brain. It is caused by attack from the body's own immune system. The cause is not known. It can lead to blindness and paralysis.
Neuropathy due to drugs
Any damage or disease affecting the nerves, which may lead to changes in sensation, movement, gland or organ function, or many other issues. Many different drugs are known to cause neuropathy as a side effect.
A psychological condition or personality trait in which a person feels intense distress or anxiety due to unrealistic perceptions or expectations of the world. Neurosis is differentiated from psychosis by a lack of hallucinations or delusions.
Nonalcoholic liver disease (NASH)
An accumulation of fat inside of the liver, an organ with many vital functions in digestion and metabolism, occurring in people who drink little or no alcohol. Though common and usually not dangerous, in some people this can lead to inflammation, scarring, and even liver failure. The exact cause is unknown.
Noninfectious gastroenteritis
Inflammation of the lining of the stomach and small intestine that is not caused by an infection. Causes include certain medications, toxins, foods in people who are intolerant, and certain diseases in which the person's own immune system attacks the body
Normal pressure hydrocephalus
Buildup of fluid in the brain, often in the elderly, that causes unstable walking, urinary incontinence, and dementia. This should be treated immediately by a physician by removing spinal fluid or placing a permanent shunt.
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