Listing conditions

Displaying 1 - 50 of 801 in total

Abdominal aortic aneurysm
An abnormal enlarging and thinning of the aorta (the largest blood vessel in the body) somewhere in the abdomen or pelvis. The exact cause is not known, though genetics, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and smoking play a role. If the aneurysm tears open, the bleeding can be life threatening. Sometimes surgery is required to prevent this.
Abdominal hernia
Internal organs poking out through a hole in the wall of the abdominal cavity (i.e. the inside part of the belly that holds in the gut organs). These often occur following intense strain, such as when lifting heavy objects, and may require surgery to fix.
Abscess of nose
A pocket of pus-filled localized infection (abscess) occurring either on the nose or in the nasal cavity. It is typically caused by bacteria, and depending on the exact location, it may be drained surgically or require antibiotics. They can be caused by blocked sweat glands or minor cuts in the skin.
Abscess of the lung
A pocket of pus in the lung. Bacteria often reaches the lung through aspiration, in which food or secretions go down the windpipe instead of the esophagus. Other causes include spread through the blood from heart infections, certain pneumonias, certain cancers, and certain vascular disorders
Abscess of the pharynx
A pocket of pus-filled, localized infection (abscess) occurring in or around the walls of the pharynx (the back of the mouth where the nose connects to the throat). This is a medical emergency, because the abscess my grow and push on the back of the throat, restricting breathing.
Acanthosis nigricans
Changes to the skin, such as darkening color and velvety texture, primarily in the folds of the neck, armpits, groin, and bellybutton. It is a symptom of obesity, diabetes, and certain cancers.
Acariasis
An infestation of the body by one of a variety of types of mites. The most common feature is a rash.
Achalasia
A condition in which the muscles of the esophagus (the tube that transports food from the mouth to the stomach) tighten but then do not relax, preventing food from entering the esophagus. The most common form of achalasia does not have a known cause, though other conditions, such as Chagas disease, may lead to achalasia.
Acne
A skin condition in which hormone-related changes to the hair follicles in the skin of the face, back, and chest leads to the development of comedones (blackheads) and pustules (pimples). In women, acne may be a symptom of PCOS.
Actinic keratosis
A noncancerous, crusty patch of skin in sun-exposed area such as the face. Actinic keratosis may progress to cancer if left untreated.
Acute bronchiolitis
An infection of the lower respiratory tract affecting the smaller airways (bronchioles). It is common in children, especially during the winter months, due to outbreaks of the virus RSV.
Acute bronchitis
Inflammation of the bronchi, the structures moving air between the windpipe and the lungs. Acute inflammation is commonly due to viruses and occasionally bacteria. Long-term exposure to irritants such as cigarette smoke can cause chronic inflammation.
Acute bronchospasm
A sudden tightening of the muscles around the bronchioles (small air tubes) in the lung, leading to a potentially life threatening difficulty breathing. Bronchospasm occurs in conditions such as asthma, bronchitis, and severe allergic reactions.
Acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP)
A rare, but life-threatening, complication of late pregnancy or the time immediately after delivery. It is related to a specific genetic mutation, causing fat to accumulate in the liver, potentially leading to organ failure.
Acute glaucoma
A medical emergency in which the pressure in the eye is high and presses on the optic nerve, the nerve that transmits visual information to the brain. It is commonly triggered by dark environments (e.g. in the movie theater). Swift evaluation and treatment can prevent blindness.
Acute kidney injury
A rapid loss in the ability of the kidneys to filter blood contents and produce urine. This can be short-term and reversible (e.g. due to dehydration), or if severe can be life threatening.
Acute otitis media
An infection of the space behind the ear drum. It is common in children and some cases require antibiotics and/or drainage.
Acute pancreatitis
Inflammation of the pancreas, an important organ for digestion and regulation of blood sugar levels. The vast majority of cases are either due to a gallstone getting stuck in the duct coming the pancreas or due to alcohol abuse. Severe pancreatitis is life-threatening.
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
A life-threatening reaction to injuries or infections of the lung, characterized by inflammation and swelling throughout the lung leading to inability to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide in the lungs. Common causes include lung contusions, sepsis, and drug overdoses.
Acute sinusitis
An inflammation of the mucous lining of the bony cavities of the face. Should the inflammation last longer than 4 weeks, it is considered chronic sinusitis. 98% of cases are due to viruses against which antibiotics are ineffective.
Acute stress reaction
A psychological condition following a mentally traumatic event. Patients can feel detached, depersonalized, lose memory of who they are, or have recurrent flashbacks of the event.
Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder
Also known as frozen shoulder, this is a disorder of the connective tissue of the shoulder. It becomes inflamed and stiff, causing pain and decreased range of motion. The exact cause is unknown.
Adjustment reaction
Also known as "adjustment disorder," this is a mental condition in which a person has trouble coping with a specific life event, such as intense grief after losing a loved one or worry after losing a job. This condition typically goes away with time, but can lead to more serious psychiatric disorders down the line.
Adrenal adenoma
A noncancerous tumor of the adrenal gland, a structure that lies above the kidneys and is important in the production of many different vital hormones. Some adenomas cause no symptoms, are diagnosed incidentally, and are not dangerous. Others may begin to release too much of a hormone, and need to be removed.
Adrenal cancer
A malignant transformation of the tissues of the adrenal gland, a structure involved in releasing hormones in response to stress. There are several types of adrenal cancers, some of which are related to genetic conditions.
Air embolism
A gas bubble that has traveled through the circulatory system and become lodged inside of an artery or vein, interrupting blood flow to part of the body. Air usually enters the blood stream following certain medical and surgical procedures, but typically causes no symptoms. In rare cases, it can cause permanent damage to the organs and tissues.
Alcohol abuse
A condition in which someone continues to drink alcohol despite it causing problems in the person's life (e.g. arrests, career or relationship problems, health).
Alcoholic liver disease
Damage to the liver resulting from alcohol abuse. Extent of the disease ranges from fat deposition (fatty liver) to permanent scarring (cirrhosis).
Alcohol intoxication
Commonly known as "drunkenness" or "inebriation," this is a state caused by excess consumption of alcohol. Depending on severity, it can range from mildly impaired coordination and feelings of happiness to respiratory failure and coma.
Alcohol withdrawal
A set of symptoms occurring in someone who stops consuming alcohol after an extended period of regular and heavy alcohol use. Symptoms typically occur between 6 and 24 hours of alcohol discontinuation, and include shaking, headache, nausea, vomiting, confusion, hallucinations, and even life-threatening seizures. This requires prompt medical treatment.
Allergy
A disorder in which the immune system is triggered to react to certain specific, usually harmless, substances in the environment (allergens), leading to a rapid and predictable set of symptoms (allergic reaction).
Allergy to animals
An allergy is an abnormal reaction by the immune system to a normal substance, leading to a predictable pattern of symptoms. In the case of an allergy to animals, it is often caused by tiny particles in the air from the animal's dead skin, urine, or saliva. Symptoms range from mild to potentially life threatening.
Alopecia
Loss of hair on the head or body. The most common form is male pattern baldness, but other causes include auto-immune disorders (alopecia areata), fungal infections, poor nutrition, or damage from chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
Alzheimer disease
The most common progressive dementia in the United States. Forgetfulness and impairment of recent memory are the early signs. The disease later leads to irritability, aggression and mood swings. It is ultimately fatal.
Amblyopia
A disorder of vision in which visual information is not properly transmitted from an otherwise normal eyeball to the brain. When one eye has a dysfunction (such as lazy eye, near or farsightedness, or a cataract) in early childhood, the brain preferentially receives information from the other eye, thus preventing that part of the brain from developing. This can lead to poor depth perception and other problems.
Amyloidosis
One of a variety of conditions caused by accumulation of certain proteins, known as amyloids, in the organs or other tissues. Normally these proteins are in solution in blood, but may become deposited in tissues, either due to excess production or genetic disease leading to abnormal folding of the protein. This can lead to organ damage.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
A rapidly progressing, eventually fatal neurological condition marked by degeneration of the nerve cells that are responsible for voluntary muscle control. Thinking and the senses are typically not affected. The exact cause is unknown. Some medications may modestly improve survival and help with symptom relief.
Anal fissure
A tear in the lining of the anus (lowest part of the bowels), commonly caused by constipation, passing of large stool, childbirth, or anal sex.
Anal fistula
An abnormal connection between the surface of the anus and other structures (usually the skin near the opening of the anus). This typically originates from anal glands getting clogged, leading to infection and the formation of pockets of pus. These pockets then drain and form tracts to the external skin.
Anemia
Either a decrease in the total number of red blood cells or a decrease in the amount of oxygen-binding molecules (hemoglobin) in red blood cells. This leads to poor delivery of oxygen to the tissues of the body.
Anemia due to chronic kidney disease
A lowered number of red blood cells (the cells that carry oxygen to the tissues) due to some form of kidney disease, such as chronic kidney disease due to high blood pressure. This is caused by lower amounts of a hormone (erythropoietin) produced by the kidneys that tells the body to make red blood cells.
Anemia due to malignancy
Anemia is an abnormally low number of red blood cells, the cells that carry oxygen in the blood. Malignancies, also known as cancers, can cause anemia in a number of different ways, including bleeding and bone marrow suppression.
Anemia of chronic disease
Low levels in the blood of red blood cells, the cells that carry oxygen to the tissues, due to longstanding inflammatory conditions such as auto-immune disease, HIV, cancer, kidney disease, liver disease, and many others.
Angina
Chest pain due to insufficient delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle. While not a heart attack per se, having angina is a sign of coronary artery disease. If the pain if new, worse than usual, or occurred at rest, call 911.
Ankylosing spondylitis
A chronic, inflammatory disease primarily of the spine and pelvis, in which a form of arthritis leads to pain and stiffness in the back. It can eventually lead to the bones of the spine and pelvis fusing together. Other organs or joints, especially the eyes, may also be affected. The exact cause is unknown.
Anxiety
A feeling of fear that something bad will happen. The fear can be very specific (e.g. taking a test at school) or abstract (e.g. general worrying about nothing in particular). Anxiety can be mild to disabling.
Aortic valve disease
Problems with the valve in the heart from which blood leaves the heart and goes to the rest of the body. The valve can either fail to open (aortic stenosis) or fail to close (aortic insufficiency). There are many causes for this condition, which may require surgery if severe.
Aphakia
The absence of the lens of the eye due to either surgical removal, direct damage, or birth defect. This can cause very poor vision (particularly up close and far away) that can be somewhat corrected with glasses or contacts, or even surgically implanted artificial lenses.
Aphthous ulcer
Commonly known as a canker sore, these are common, non-dangerous sores in the mouth. They can occur periodically, but usually heal on their own. However, they can also be a common symptom of a more serious system-wide condition, such as many auto-immune disorders. The exact cause is unknown.
Aplastic anemia
A blood disorder in which the bone marrow does not produce enough new blood cells (including those that carry oxygen, fight infections, and prevent bleeding). It may be inherited or caused by toxins, medications, radiation or chemotherapy, auto-immune diseases, infections, or pregnancy.
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